What are the effects of exercise on clients with mental health disorders?

Assignment Option 1: Adult Assessment Tools or Diagnostic Tests
September 1, 2022
Week 7 Q&S
September 1, 2022

What are the effects of exercise on clients with mental health disorders?

RUA : Research Presentation



Research Question

What are the effects of exercise on clients with mental health disorders?


Evaluate the effects of exercise on mental health disorders

Explore interventions/specific methods that can reduce symptoms of mental illnesses











World Health Organization (2019)










The second leading cause of death among 15-29-year-olds is suicide.




(Boone & Brausch, 2016)








Non-suicidal self-injury, a form of self-directed violence, effects approximately 15% of adolescents and 17-35% of college aged students.









National Institute of Mental Health



43.8 million adults experience mental illness in a given year

(NIMH, n.d.)



National Alliance on Mental Illness (2021)









20.6 % of adults and 16.5% of youth experience mental illness in the United States (NAMI, 2021).


American Psychiatric Association









One in five U.S adults who experience some form of mental health illness throughout their lifespan


(CDC, 2018)








Individuals living with serious mental illness face an increased risk of physical health problems, such as heart disease, diabetes, and HIV





1 in 5 adults in America experience a mental illness.

1 in 25 (10 million) adults in America live with a serious mental illness.

One-half of all chronic mental illness begins by the age of 14; three-quarters by the age of 24







Chronic Pain







Boone & Bausch, 2016



Purpose: Relationship between exercise and NSSI



Sample: 167

13-25 years old high school/college



Methods: self-report questionnaires



Results: exercise has a protective factor against NSSI/depressive symptoms





Beitel et al., 2016


Pain intensity (8%, 6%,6%,) and pain interference (6%,6%, 5%)for patient with chronic pain, pain intensity( 3%,3%, 2%,) and pain interference (2%, 3%, and 2%) without chronic pain percentages which were approximately 2% and 2% for depression and interpersonal relationships for those with chronic pain and for those without chronic pain it is 1% and 1%.



The aim of the study is to examine the extent to which patients seeking MMT (MethadoneMaintenance Treatment) with and without chronic pain differ in their current physical activity, levels and interest in exercise group participation.




303 adults, male(61%), European American(84%), unmarried(68%),inclusion criteria(MMT,English)




Questions on physical activity level

. Moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was calculated

. Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) scale

. Behavior and Symptom Identification Scale -24 (BASIC-24)




Participants with chronic pain have a higher level of pain intensity  and pain interference. More participants without chronic pain met the weekly MVPA level than with those with chronic

Pain with a 10% difference.  More women have an interest in exercise group participation compared to men

. Participants with chronic pain have a higher level of psychiatric symptoms than those without.





Telenius et al., 2015


Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a high intensity exercise

program on balance in dementia patients living in skilled nursing facilities.


Sample: 182 participants joined the study age 55 or older, mild or moderate degrees of dementia,

Able to stand up alone or with the assistance of one person, and the ability to walk 6 meters with aid or without.


Methods: Berg Balance Scale, The 30 second chair test, Normal walking speed test, Barthel Index ADLs,

Neuropsychiatric Inventory questionnaire, MMSE, and the Cornell depression scale.



Intervention group increased their score by 2.9 points in balance ,and the control group improved by 1.2points in balance.

Representing a significance change of (p = 0.02) between the groups.


NPI, Neuropsychiatric Inventory;


Agitation (NPI) andApathy (NPI) Intervention group improved by lowering their scores in agitation and apathy by 0.2 and the

Control group lowering their apathy score by 0.1 and increasing their agitation score by 0.4. The difference in the groups

relating to apathy the significance was (p = 0.048) and for agitation the significance showed (p = 0.07).


Barthel Index: Significance (p = 0.085) with the intervention group improving by 0.1 and the control group declining by 0.7









Significant difference between groups at p<0.05 level. Significant difference between groups at p<0.1 level.

Effects of a 12-week Running Programme in Youth and Adults with Complex Mood Disorders (Keating et.al., 2018)






BDI= 39% decrease in depressive symptoms in adults vs. 27% decrease in depressive symptoms in youth

BAI, PSS, BDI remission= a decrease in the number of participants with moderate or high scores,and an increase of participants in the low and absent categories

higher levels of perceived friendships= lower scores on the BDI, BAI, and PSS scales

Participants who attended more than 50% of the running sessions = a decrease in BDI and BAI scores



To evaluate the impact of running on stress, anxiety, and depression in youth and adults with complex mood disorders including comorbid diagnoses, cognitive and social impairment, and high relapse rates.


The study included s 12-week group-based recreational running program that intended to enhance clinical outcomes in youth and adults with depression, anxiety, and bipolar.




64 participants

Inclusion- history of depression, bipolar, and anxiety

Exclusion- 10 participants

8 were missing a primary diagnosis

general anxiety disorder




Beck Depression Inventory scale (BDI-II)

Beck Anxiety Inventory scale (BAI)

Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)

36 self-reported survey questions

Running log




Nursing Implications


Exercise also reduces levels of cortisol. Cortisol is a stress hormone that builds fat in the abdominal region, making weight loss difficult. Cortisol causes many health problems, both physical and psychological

. Talking to the patient about how active they are in everyday life can trigger awareness about personal health behavior

. Nurses can motivate patient to embrace positive attitudes and providing support when patients have negative attitudes, or naturally occurring lapses.

. Smart Goals – specific , measurable , attainable, realistic, timely.





Nurses need to be educated on the benefits of physical exercise



To promote physical exercise, nurses should educate their patients on the benefits of exercise for their lifelong wellbeing.



Motivating their patient is having a positive attitude and supporting them.



Assess the patient if they are fit for exercise, daily weight and if there are other barriers to physical exercise.



Set personal goals for clients and reassess and change according to their needs







Beitel, M., Stults-Kolehmainen, M., Cutter, C. J., Schottenfeld, R. S., Eggert, K., Madden, L. M., Kerns, R. D., Liong, C., Ginn, J., & Berry, D. T. (2016). Physical activity, psychiatric distress, and interest in exercise group participation among individuals seeking methadone maintenance treatment with and without chronic pain. The American Journal on Addition, 25, 125- 131. https://doorg.chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/10.1111/ajad.123 36

Boone, S. D., & Brausch, A. M. (2016). Physical activity, exercise motivations, depression, and nonsuicidal self-injury in youth. Suicide and Life-T hreatening Behavior, 46(5), 625-633. doi:10.1111/sltb.12240





Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, January 22). Benefits of Physical Activity. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/basics/pahealth/index.htm# :~:text=Immediate%20Benefits

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2021, January). Mental Illness. National Institute of Mental Health. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/statistics/mental-illness.shtml.




Telenius, E. W., Engedal, K., & Bergland, A. (2015). Effect of a high-intensity exercise program on physical function and mental health in nursing home residents with dementia: An assessor blinded randomized controlled trial. PLOS ONE, 10(5). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126102

World Health Organization. Mental health. World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/health-topics/mental-health#tab=tab_1.