Radiation Safety in Nuclear Medicine
• Please type your answers below the questions and the space will expand.
• Please include a reference with the sources that you used to find the information.
• Which groups are involved in the regulation of nuclear material? Visit http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/cfr/part020/ and skim through the subparts of 10 CFR 20. This is where you will find the “original” copy of many of the regulations we discuss in class.
• What is an “agreement state?” Which of the New England states are agreement states? Which are not? (HINT: you’ll need to do some online research)
• Who determines which labels need be placed on packages containing radioactive materials? Based on the label in the image below, what is the maximum radiation level at any point on the external surface of the package? What is the transport index for this package (a bit hard to read)?
• Please fill in the following table, which will help you outline and start to put to memory the NRC radiation exposure limits. Be sure that you understand the acronyms listed.
U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Radiation Exposure Limits
Occupational Exposures Rem (mSv)
Lens of Eye LDE
Any organ or tissue TEDE
Skin or any extremity SDE
Member of the General Public TEDE
Embryo/fetus of Occupationally Exposed Worker
• What is the difference between a “restricted” and “unrestricted” area? Next to each sign below, please indicate how much exposure an individual could expect by entering.
Intended Use/Where to Post
• What are the various ways of disposing radioactive waste (dry/liquid/gaseous)?
• You walk into an imaging room in the Regis General Hospital Nuclear Medicine Department and realize that you’ve stepped in an unidentified “puddle” just inside the doorway. You also notice “drops” leading away from the puddle toward the imaging table, where a patient with a bladder catheter is having a bone scan. What should you do? (HINT: radioactive spill emergency procedure)
• A patient is ordered for an I-131 sodium iodide treatment for hyperthyroidism. What document must be completed prior to administration? Who completes the document? What information does the document contain? What happens to this document after administration?
• If the patient above receives 20 mCi of I-131 sodium iodide instead of the prescribed 15 mCi, which of the following individuals/agencies must be notified and why?
• NRC. B. NRC and FDA C. Referring physician D. NRC and referring physician
• How do time, distance, and shielding play into radiation protection in the clinical setting? What should be minimized? What should be maximized? Are there times when we can’t employ the ideal combination of time, distance and shielding (think of examples from clinical)?