Public Health and Health Care Essay
Public health is one the of the science that improves and protects the health care of the communities and families through promotions of healthy lifestyles, research for injury and disease prevention and detection and control of infectious diseases. Public health professionals try and prevent issues from happening or recurring through implementing educational programs recommending policies, manage services and conducting research. Such as contrast to clinical professionals doctors, and nurses, who will focus primarily on treating people after they become injured or ill. Public Health and Health Care Essay Paper
Public health also works to limit health care disparities. A greater part of public health is promoting health care equity, accessibility and quality (International Health Conference, 1946).
How CDC Contributes to Public Health
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the nation’s disease prevention and wellness promotion agency, protecting individual’s safety and health, giving credible information to enhance health care decisions, and improving health care through strong organization. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) work includes wide range health care threats, including infectious chronic diseases, birth defects, injuries, water safety food, environmental hazards, safety and occupational health. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) also administers funding for local health departments and state, community based companies and academic institutions for a wide array of public health programs and research. Daily Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) experts work both behind the scenes and on the frontlines to improve individual’s daily lives and respond to health care emergencies. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is headquartered in Atlanta and has just about 14,000, full-time, part-time and contract employees located all through the U.S. and in 54 countries (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012). Public Health and Health Care Essay Paper
Specific Ways CDC Influence/ Roles of CDC Agency
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) contribute with its partner around the world to detect and investigate health care problems, monitor health, conduct research to enhance prevention, develop and advocate sound public health policies, and provide leadership and training. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) develops a system design recognizing information and sources that best tackle a surveillance goal, be familiar with who will have rights to use information, by what technique and under what circumstances; also improving analysis or action by improving the surveillance system communication with other information systems Using data group recognizing possible bias linked with another collection technique cultural approach in the direction of technology or telephone use, recognizing suitable use of structured data compared with free text, more useful, data standards and language and suggest technologies such as global radio-frequency and positioning systems identification to maintain faster, higher-quality data and easier, access in the field. Public Health and Health Care Essay Paper
Information management and collation recognize ways to share data across different computing technology proposal linking new information with data from legacy systems; and be familiar with and remedying information quality issues as making certain information security and privacy. “Analysis recognize suitable statistical and image applications, put together algorithms to prepare users to aberrations within health care events also leveraging high routine computational resources for large data sets or difficult analyses” (Dixon, Gamache, & Grannis, 2013).
Understanding the value of evaluate information from one surveillance plan with other information time, place, person, or condition for new viewpoint and merge data of other quality to give a background for explanation and foundation. Diffusion suggest suitable let somebody see information users and the best technique to reach the proposed audience, smooth the progress of data finding; and recognize benefits for information providers (Lundstrom, Pugliese, Bartley, Cox, & Guither, 2002).
Application to public health programs assessing the utility of having surveillance data directly flow into information systems that support public health interventions and information elements or standards that facilitate this linkage of surveillance to action and improving access to and use of information produced by a surveillance system for workers in the field and health-care providers (Dixon, Gamache, & Grannis, 2013). Public Health and Health Care Essay Paper
Community Description and Data Interpretation
DeKalb County is located in Northeastern Indiana with a population of 42,307. DeKalb County ranks number 35 in size in the state of Indiana. The county was named for General Johann de Kalb, who was wounded at the Battle of Camden in South Carolina during the Revolutionary War. The county measures a total of 364 square miles. The major cities and towns that comprise the county are Altona, Ashley, Auburn, Butler, Corunna, Garrett, Saint Joe and Waterloo. The city of Auburn was established as the county seat in 1835 and has a current population of 12,731. Public Health and Health Care Essay Paper
Population Economic Status
DeKalb County is predominately White, 96.9% of the population, Judeo-Christian society. DeKalb is basically a non-diverse county. The next largest ethnic group is Hispanic at 2.5%. “From 2000-2010, DeKalb increased its Hispanic population by 355 individuals.” (Community Research Institute, 2012) The median household income is $46,065. On average the wage levels in DeKalb County are lower than in areas of similar size. The poverty level, which is below $17,374 for a family of three, is 12.1 % which is lower than the state’s average of 14.7%. The majority of those below the poverty level are single parent households and working older adults. In addition to the assessment of the national poverty level, the Indiana Institute for Working Families has created a self-sufficiency calculator to help reflect the financial needs of the family. The self-sufficiency calculator identifies the wages needed to meet basic necessities without the use of food stamps or public aid. For a family of three the annual salary needed to maintain the family is $31,054. This is difficult to achieve with no college education. The unemployment rate is 8.9% due to the recession and manufacturing industries decreasing their level of production within the community. DeKalb County has had the highest unemployment rate in Indiana for the past eleven years. This rate is reflexed by the number of those actively looking for work, those not currently employed and the retirement of the baby boomers. Because of the large number of single head of households with children, Food Stamp usage had risen from 593 in 2003 to 2,000 in 2011. This represents 13% of all DeKalb County residents receiving assistance with food. Single parents are also eligible for Women, Infants and Children, a government supplement program, which has increased by 88%. In 2001 there were 992 participates in the program compared to the current number of 1,869. Also available is TANF, temporary assistance for needy families that has doubled from the beginning of 2001 to the end of 2009. Public Health and Health Care Essay Paper
The population in DeKalb County is comprised of 52.5% females and 47.5 % males. The fastest growing households have been the male head of house with no spouse, senior adults who live alone, and female head of house no spouse. The number of married couples with children has decreased. Those over the age of 65 account for 40% of all single person households. The population in DeKalb consists of many baby boomers that are getting ready for retirement and exiting the work force. In general the health of the residents of DeKalb County is good. The population has maintained a relatively low ranking for adult diabetes at 9.2%, adult smoking at 21%, and adult obesity at 30%. The quality of life is better than the national average. Residents who were in poor or fair health were at 13% compared to the state of Indiana at 16%. Residents who experienced poor physical health days were at 2.9 compared to 3.6 in the state. One of the disadvantages of living in a small county is the lack of facilities that provide recreational activity. Thus only about 50% of the residents partake in recreational activities. One of the greatest challenges in DeKalb County is the high incidence of Illegal drug use. According to the Indiana government 35 meth labs were seized in 2013 compared to 12 in 2011. Despite the increase in education for law enforcement personnel, who have been trained on how to detect the meth labs, meth continues to be readily available. Another problem that is prevalent in the County is child abuse and neglect. DeKalb County has a child abuse and neglect rate of 42 per 1,000 children. This is the second highest rate in the state of Indiana. DeKalb is in the top 10 counties in Indiana three times in the last ten years. One of the possible reasons for the increase could be related to the increase in parental drug use. Public Health and Health Care Essay Paper
The DeKalb County health department offers a range of health information and services to the residents of the county. The department offers the following services wellness screenings, Shots for Tots, lipid profiles and health checks, Tuberculin skin tests, soil evaluations and water testing. The health department also offers the public information on various topics such as: gun permits, medical alert information, domestic violence, property taxes, chronic disease monitoring and sex offenders watch. Even though the information is easy to find and readily available the residents do not use the services. DeKalb County has many industrial facilities in the area. The air quality within DeKalb County ranked among the dirtiest 40% of all counties within the United States related to volatile organic compound emissions. Air pollutants that increased Cancer and health risks ranked among the worst 20% of all counties in the United States. The county ranked in the worst 10% of all counties in the United States for toxic chemicals released by factories, power plants and other industrial companies. The county also ranked in the worst 10% for Superfund sites. Another risk within the county is lead poisoning in the homes; on average 2% of the homes in DeKalb County have a high risk of lead paint hazards. Unfortunately, the growth of industry has created a negative impact on the community. Crimes rates within the county are low and usually are classified as a minor felony. Between 2002 and 2008 DeKalb County reported 3,941 crimes of those 231 were violent crimes. Most of the crimes that happened were a mile from the individual’s home. Someone is a victim of crime every fifteen hours. The local police department and sheriff’s office are quick to respond to calls for help through the 911 operator system. DeKalb County also has a potential for severe weather events. During the transition from winter to spring opportunities are present for severe weather. Educational information is available at the DeKalb County website for winter weather, flooding, and tornados. County alert systems are in place to warn the residence of a threat of severe weather. Community organizations and personnel have plans in place to help residents maintain safety and preparedness. Public Health and Health Care Essay Paper
Disaster Assessment & Planning
“The DeKalb County Homeland Security department prepares implements and educates the public about the emergency response plans and procedures for the community.” (DeKalb County, 2014) The education includes equipment usage and allocation, the notification process for the emergency personnel and the public, and evacuation procedures. The department of Homeland Security regularly conducts training sessions for personnel and individuals who would direct safety operations during emergencies and disasters. The department also maintains a list of potentially hazardous chemicals, in accordance with federal regulations, used by all businesses and industries within DeKalb County. Emergency Preparedness Kit Suggestions and a family disaster supply calendars are available on the department’s website. Many in the community are unaware of the resources or even the informational website that the Department of Homeland Security has available. Public Health and Health Care Essay Paper
In conclusion, DeKalb County is an area in need of great support and care. The community suffers from a large number of issues ranging from pollution to illegal drug use, child abuse and neglect and the public not understanding where to obtain the information regarding an emergency preparedness plan. All though the department of health and the Homeland Security Department have many resources available to assist the residences with education and implementation of safe practices the community lacks the knowledge on how to obtain the information and implement it. The community would benefit from programs on the dangers of drug use, how to cope with stress to help prevent child abuse, and an increase in the training and education of the emergency preparedness plan. If the public health organizations and the department of Homeland Security joined together to inform the public and assist with training and education DeKalb County would be an even better place to live. Public Health and Health Care Essay Paper
Community Research Institute. 2012. DeKalb County Profile.
DeKalb County. 2014. Homeland Security: Department Overview.
Health care reform is not a recently devised concept. The government and health professionals have studied and tried to establish legislation that would assist the general population with a means of accessing adequate health care for decades. The task has proven itself as a daunting one although studied the world over. Individuals struggle with disease and illness that they cannot afford medical attention and treatment. Insurance companies price gouge or drop individuals from their insurance coverage. Reform has to be implemented to protect the public and provide across the board health care for every situation. Public Health and Health Care Essay Paper
Ronald Andersen wrote in the Journal of Health and Social Behavior there is a model of behavior that determines the seeking out of health services (Anderson, 1995). Anderson collaborated with Odin Anderson and wrote The Initial Behavioral Model in 1968 to assist in the analysis of national survey data collected by the Center for Health Administration Studies and the National Opinion Research Center at the University of Chicago (Andersen & Anderson, 1967). The model explains that there are elements that may determine if an individual will access health services.
Anderson explained, “I want to stress that the model was initially designed to explain the use of formal personal health services rather than to focus on the important interactions that take place as people receive care, or on health outcomes”(Andersen, 1968, p. 1). The Initial Behavioral Model (1960s) PREDISPOSING ENABLING USE OF CHARACTERISTICS RESOURCES NEED HEALTH SERVICES Demographic Personal/Family Perceived Social Structure Community (Evaluated) Health Beliefs (Revisiting The Behavioral Model and Access to Medical Care: Does it Matter?, 1995). Public Health and Health Care Essay Paper
The president had legislation passed in 2010 to implement the Affordable Care Act. Today, more than 45 million Americans lack access to affordable health insurance. Additionally, many individuals who do have health insurance have incomplete coverage that may include exclusions for pre-existing conditions, or they may be one-step away from losing coverage because of a change in employment. Individuals with health insurance face increasingly high premiums and medical costs that drive some to bankruptcy or force choices between maintaining health insurance coverage and paying for other household essentials (HHS, 2013). These new regulations will provide consumer protections and the developing of a competitive market. Insurance companies will be required to spend a specific percentage on health care and not excessive administrative costs.
There have been major changes to the accessibility of insurance coverage for individuals which have been diagnosed with a pre-existing medical condition. Insurance companies will no longer be allowed to deny insurance coverage for individuals, such as children born with life-threatening illnesses. This will also address lifetime limits on medical care. There has been a health insurance exchange in an effort to pool millions of people and allow them to examine various insurance coverage policies to determine the best policy for them and their families. Health and Human Services has implemented a website for the comparison of the insurance coverage options (HHS, 2013). Public Health and Health Care Essay Paper
There have been conversations for decades about the implementation of universal health coverage. The World Health Organization defines it as a goal to ensure that people obtain the health services they need without suffering financial hardship when paying for them. It goes on explaining, access to health services enables people to be more productive and active contributors to their families and communities….financial risk protection prevents people from being pushed into poverty when they have to pay for health services out of their own pockets (WHO, 2012). There is a definite similarity with the concepts of universal health care and the Affordable Care Act now in place in this country.
Attempts are being made to ensure that all citizens can access health care and increase their wellbeing in the process. The expansion of Medicaid will benefit multiple low-income citizens who, through no fault of their own, are working at a minimum wage job. They are barely earning too much money to be eligible for assistance and are not making enough of a salary to afford health insurance coverage. It turns into a viscous cycle. The individual has to decide whether it is better to quit work and get assistance for medical care or to continue struggling and still not make the grade. Public Health and Health Care Essay Paper
There have been no major issues personally with the implementation of the health care expansion. The insurances that I carry are both the Medicare and Medicaid. Medicaid has changed in that they are requiring that there is a primary care physician (PCP) established to oversee medical services provided. The initial visit would be to the PCP where any examination and testing would be performed for the determination of the necessity of a referral.
The PCP’s office would organize all medical records and coordinate with the specialist’s staff to establish a consultation. I consider myself an extremely fortunate individual because I have been able to have multiple medical issues addressed and corrected because of the medical coverage. The Medicare coverage is not as restrictive as Medicaid. Medicare allows the individual to access any physician or facility that the patient desires for treatment as long as their insurance is accepted.
There has not been any specific positive or negative effect with this coverage. Medicare has provided successfully for preventive measures in my health services such as yearly mammograms, colonoscopy testing every two years (if deemed necessary through findings during prior examination), and comprehensive yearly physical examinations. Unfortunately, there is minimal dental coverage and no eye examinations available. Public Health and Health Care Essay Paper
There has been major skepticism with the Affordable Care Act being voted on and implemented in the governmental realm. It is exhibiting a number of positive actions implemented with the creation of this act. It is time that this country gives thought to the individuals which are suffering because of
no fault of their own other than being on the lower end of the income scale. Also citizens are pleased with the inclusion of the poor souls battling daily with an affliction that requires more attention and treatment than they could ever afford. It is in this new light that people are viewing the creation of the Affordable Care Act and see that this should prove to be beneficial to every citizen within the national borders.