NURS 6521 Discussion Alterations in Cellular Processes

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NURS 6521 Discussion Alterations in Cellular Processes

NURS 6521 Discussion Alterations in Cellular Processes
NURS 6521 Discussion Alterations in Cellular Processes
NURS 6521 Discussion Alterations in Cellular Processes

At its core, pathology is the study of disease. Diseases occur for many reasons. But some, such as cystic fibrosis and Parkinson’s Disease, occur because of alterations that prevent cells from functioning normally.
Understanding of signals and symptoms of alterations in cellular processes is a critical step in diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. For the Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN), this understanding can also help educate patients and guide them through their treatment plans.
For this Discussion, you examine a case study and explain the disease that is suggested. You examine the symptoms reported and explain the cells that are involved and potential alterations and impacts.
To prepare:
• By Day 1 of this week, you will be assigned to a specific scenario for this Discussion. Please see the “Course Announcements” section of the classroom for your assignment from your Instructor.
By Day 3 of Week 1
Post an explanation of the disease highlighted in the scenario you were provided. Include the following in your explanation:
• The role genetics plays in the disease.
• Why the patient is presenting with the specific symptoms described.
• The physiologic response to the stimulus presented in the scenario and why you think this response occurred.
• The cells that are involved in this process.
• How another characteristic (e.g., gender, genetics) would change your response.
Read a selection of your colleagues’ responses.
By Day 6 of Week 1
Respond to at least two of your colleagues on 2 different days and respectfully agree or disagree with your colleague’s assessment and explain your reasoning. In your explanation, include why their explanations make physiological sense or why they do not
Case Scenario 1
The disease highlighted in the scenario is Tonsillitis. The 16-year-old boy complained of a sore throat for 3 days and denies fever/ chilis. He has no PMHx of recurrent colds influenza, ear infections, or pneumonia. Vital signs on physical examination were within the normal range. The HEENT was also normal except for reddened posterior pharynx with white exudate on tonsils that are enlarged to 3+. Positive anterior and posterior cervical adenopathy, as well as positive rapid strep test performed in the doctor’s office presents the common signs and symptoms of tonsillitis.
Tonsillitis is the inflammation of the tonsils caused by infections with a common virus or bacterial infections such as group A Streptococcus. According to Mayo Clinic (2020), the tonsils are the immune system’s first line of defense against bacteria and viruses that enter your mouth. This function may make the tonsils particularly vulnerable to infection and inflammation. However, the tonsil’s immune system function declines after puberty, a factor that may account for the rare cases of tonsillitis in adults. Tonsillitis often affects children, and tonsillitis caused by bacteria is most common in children 5 ages to mid-teenage. Inflammation of the tonsils can cause complications such as disrupted breathing during sleep (obstructive sleep apnea), an infection that spreads deep into the surrounding tissue (tonsillar cellulitis), an infection that results in a collection of pus behind a tonsil (peritonsillar abscess).

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NURS 6521 Discussion Alterations in Cellular Processes
NURS 6521 Discussion Alterations in Cellular Processes

Host genetic variations play an important role in several pathogenic diseases. Therefore the genetic variations in this context of tonsillitis play an equally significant role to contribute to differences in susceptibility and clinical outcomes of invasive group A Streptococcus (Krishnan et al, 2016).
The alteration of the mast cells involved in this process, due to the inflammatory response of the phagocytic cells (neutrophils, B-cells, and T-cells extravasation) made the patient present with the specific symptoms described in the scenario (Khan Academy, 2010).
The physiologic response to the stimulus presented in the scenario is an anaphylactic response mediated by IgE antibodies that are produced by the immune system in response to the antibiotic the patient ingested. These antibodies (IgE) bind to mast cells and basophils, which contain histamine granules that are released in the reaction and cause inflammation (Justiz Vaillant &Zito, 2019). I think this response occurred because the efficacy or sensitivity of the amoxicillin was not compatible with the boy’s variant dominant genes. According to McCance & Huether (2019), Several genes are now known to be associated with sensitivity to specific therapeutic drugs, and people are sometimes tested for variants in these genes to help guide drug treatment. A patient with different characteristics of the genes without sensitivity to the amoxicillin will respond well with positive outcomes.

Khan Academy. (2010). Inflammatory Response/ Human Anatomy and Physiology/ Health & Medicine

. Retrieved from tube .com/watch?v=FxSuEIMrPQK.

Justiz- Vaillant, A.A., and Zito, P.M. (2019). Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions. In Statpearls. Treasure Island, FL: Statpearls Publishing. Retrieved from
Krishnan, K.C., Mukundan, S., Alagarsamy, J., Laturnus, D., Kotb, M. (2016). Host Genetic Variations and Sex Differences Potentiate Predisposition, Severity, and Outcomes of Group A Streptococcus-Mediated Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infections.>content. DOI: 10.1128/IAI.01191-15.

McCance, K. L. & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier.