Discuss Epidemiologic Principles
Discussion: Epidemiologic Principles
Discussion: Epidemiologic Principles
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Epidemiologic Principles Worksheet Guidelines and Grading Rubric Purpose The purpose of this assignment is to help you to begin to understand and apply the important counts, ratios, and statistics presented in healthcare and epidemiological research. Remember to use the list of formulas presented prior to the problems and to carefully consider the purpose of each calculation and how it is interpreted. Also, do not forget the importance of the proper denominator such as per 100, per 1,000, per 10,000 etc. Course Outcomes This assignment provides documentation of students’ ability to meet the following course outcomes: (CO #1) Distinguish the roles and relationships between epidemiology and biostatistics in the prevention of disease and the improvement of health. (PO#1) (CO #2) Assimilate principles of epidemiology with scientific data necessary for epidemiologic intervention and draw appropriate inferences from epidemiologic data. (PO#1) (CO #4) Utilize appropriate public health terminology and definitions of epidemiology necessary for intra-/interprofessional collaboration in advanced nursing practice. (PO#8) Points This assignment is worth 50 points. Due Date Submit your completed worksheet to the Dropbox by Sunday 11:59 p.m. MT of Week 3 as directed. Requirements 1. Complete the Risk Calculation Worksheet located in Doc Sharing. 2. For each question, identify the correct answer. 3. Submit the worksheet to the Dropbox by 11:59 p.m. MT Sunday of Week 3. Preparing the Worksheet The following are best practices for preparing this assignment: 1. Prior to completing this worksheet, review the lessons, reading and course text up to this point. Also review the tables of calculations. 2. Each question is worth 5 points. 3. There is only one right answer for each of the 10 problems. 4. You will upload the completed worksheet to the Dropbox. Epidemiological Formulas and Statistics Parameter Definition Formula Incidence (exposed) Incidence of new cases of disease in persons who were exposed number (exposed with disease)/total number of exposed Incidence (unexposed) Incidence of new cases of disease in persons who were not exposed number (unexposed with disease)/total number of unexposed Incidence of Disease Measure of risk: Total number in a population with a disease divided by the total number of the population Number with the disease/ total population number Relative Risk Risk of disease in one group versus another: Risk of developing a disease after exposure. If this number is 1, it means there is no risk. R(exposed)/Risk (unexposed) (# exposed with disease[divided by]/total of all exposed) (# of unexposed with disease/[divided by]total of all unexposed) Odds Ratio A measure of exposure and disease outcome commonly used in case control studies R(exposed) / R (unexposed) 1- R(exposed) 1-R(unexposed) Prevalence The number of cases of a disease in a given time regardless of when it began (new and old cases) (Persons with the disease/ Total population) X 1000 Attributable Risk The difference in disease in those exposed and unexposed and is calculated from prospective data; directly attributed to exposure (if exposure is gone, disease would be gone) R(exposed) – R(unexposed) Crude Birth Rate The number of live births per 1,000 people in the population (# of births/estimated midyear population) X 1000 Crude Death Rate The number of deaths per 1,000 people in the population (# of deaths/estimated midyear population) X 1000 Fetal Death Rate The number of fetal deaths (20 weeks or more gestation) per 1,000 live births (# of fetal deaths/ # of live births + fetal deaths) X 1000 Annual Mortality Rate Usually an expression of a specific disease or can be all causes per 1,000 people for a year (# of deaths of all causes (or a specific disease)/midyear population) X 1000 Cause Specific Mortality Rate Usually an expression of a specific disease per 1,000 people for a year (# of deaths per a specific disease)/midyear population) X 1000 Case Fatality Rate The parentage of individuals who have a specific disease and die within a specific time after diagnosis (# of persons dying from a disease after diagnosis or set period/ # of persons with the disease) X 100 Answer the following questions. Remember that there is only one right answer for each item. 1. The population in the city of Springfield, Missouri, in March, 2014, was 200,000. The number of new cases of HIV was 28 between January 1 and June 30, 2014. The number of current HIV cases was 130 between January 1 and June 30, 2014. The incidence rate of HIV cases for this 6-month period was A. 7 per 100,000 of the population. B. 14 per 100,000 of the population. C. 28 per 100,000 of the population. D. 85 per 100,000 of the population. 2. The prevalence rate of HIV cases in Springfield, Missouri, as of June 30, 2014, was A. 14 per 100,000 of the population. B. 28 per 100,000 of the population. C. 79 per 100,000 of the population. D. 130 per 100,000 of the population. 3. In a North African country with a population of 5 million people, 50,000 deaths occurred during 2014. These deaths included 5,000 people from malaria out of 10,000 persons who had malaria. What was the total annual mortality rate for 2014 for this country? (Please show your work.) 4. What was the cause-specific mortality rate from malaria? (Please show your work.) 5. What was the case-fatality percentage from malaria? 6. Fill in and total the 4 X 4 table for the following disease parameters: · Total number of people with lung cancer in a given population = 120 · Total number of people with lung cancer who smoked = 90 · Total number of people with lung cancer who did not smoke = 30 · Total number of people who smoked = 150 · Total number of people in the population = 350 Fill in the missing parameters based on the above information. YES LUNG CANCER NO LUNG CANCER TOTALS YES SMOKING NO SMOKING TOTALS 7. From Question 6, what is the total number of people with no lung cancer? 8. From question 6, what is the total number of people who smoked but did not have lung cancer? 9. Set up the problem for relative risk based on the table in #6. 10. Calculate the relative risk.