Describe the method of diagnosing the two sexually transmitted diseases
Sexually Transmitted Diseases Essay
Although adolescents age 15–24 account for nearly half of the 20 million new cases of sexually transmitted diseases each year (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014), a diagnosis of an STD is a common presentation with patients of all ages in the primary care setting. For many patients, a diagnosis of this disease can lead to embarrassment, denial, and confusion. Today, there are several treatment options; however, resistance to treatment is emerging, which was not an issue in the past. In this assignment, you will consider the appropriate diagnosis and treatment of the disease, follow-up, and education of the patient. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Essay
Review the chapter that discusses sexually transmitted diseases and vaginitis in Woo and Robinson (2015).
Consider the therapeutic options available for the patient.
Choose at least two sexually transmitted diseases that you may encounter and treat as a primary care provider.
Write a minimum 4-page paper (excluding cover page and references) that addresses the following:
Describe the method of diagnosing the two sexually transmitted diseases you selected.
Discuss how prevalent your chosen disease are and why you think it is a public health concern. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Essay
Discuss the treatment choice(s) and failure rate of your chosen therapeutic, if any.
Discuss your education plan and follow-up for your patient regarding diagnoses.
Include four or more appropriate scholarly sources from the last five years throughout the paper.
Sexually transmitted diseases (STIs) are transmitted through intimate contact. They are particularly popular among persons of between 15 and 24 years of age. According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2017), this population accounts for 20 million of the new sexually transmitted cases every year. These diseases have become a health concern and a plague especially in the higher learning institutions. The contemporary society is characterized by increased permissiveness which increases the risk of contracting these diseases among the adolescents and young adults. Early diagnosis for these infections is necessary since the severity of the infections increase with time thus posing treatment challenges. As such, this paper seeks to examine the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and gonorrhea sexually transmitted infections, their diagnostic methods, prevalence and treatment as well as the education and follow up plans for patients regarding diagnosis.
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Human immunodeficiency virus impairs the functionality of human body cells thus weakening the immune system of the infected person and allowing infection by secondary diseases. It is one of the most common deadly diseases affecting the world population and is rampant in the Sub-Saharan Africa (SMAIF, 2019). The mode of transmission is often sexual contacts with infected partners even though it can be p-assed from mother to child and contact with infected blood through various ways. On the other hand, gonorrhea is a deadly sexually transmitted disease transmitted by a bacterium. It often affects the throat, rectum and the urethra as well as the cervix in females. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Essay
Methods of Diagnosing the Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Many people across the world are unaware of their HIV status. In America, about 1 in every 7 HIV-positive people do not know their HIV status (CDC, 2017). HIV diagnosis usually involves blood test such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay which detects the presence of HIV antibodies in the blood. A confirmation of a positive diagnostic test is done using a Western blot tests. A positive test for HIV might take 3 to 6 months since the virus is undetectable during its incubation period. Early testing is critical in commencing treatment as well as prevention as it warns an individual against the risks within their exposure. HIV diagnosis is often conducted after counselling with a healthcare professional.
Notably, gonorrhea is occasionally asymptomatic and therefore, most infected people aren’t aware of its presence. Testing of this disease involves infection site swabs through which the bacteria is observed in the laboratory. Identification involves DNA analysis or bacteria culturing and the swabs are obtained from the cervix, throat and the rectum of the infected individual. Due to errors involving swabs from uninfected areas, polymerase chain reactionis the most accurate technique of diagnosing gonorrhea as it identifies bacterial genetic material from amplification or DNA probing methods. This test yields more rapid results even though it is more expensive compared to swabs. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Essay
HIV is considered as one of the most healthcare concerns of the 21st century. According to the World Health Organization, approximately 36.9 million people are currently living with HIV/ AIDS globally (CDC, 2018). In addition, about 1.8 million children of below 15 years of age are infected with the virus. New daily infections are approximated to reach 5,000 as at2017 with most of them occurring in the Sub-Saharan Africa where healthcare accessibility is a challenge. By 2017, at least 75% of the infected population was aware of their status with 21.7 million of them being under antiretroviral therapy. Approximately 940 000 people succumbed to HIV/AIDS in 2017 thus making it a great public health concern due to the increased demand for prevention, early diagnosis and management (WHO, 2019).
Gonorrhea is also prevalent in the contemporary society. In the US, 555,608 cases of this infection were reported in 2017 which indicated a 75.2% increase of infections from 2009 (WHO, 2019). As at 2012, 27 million prevalent cases were reported worldwide with the highest infected population ranging from 15 to 49 years of age. It is the second most prevalent STI in the US after chlamydia which always occur as co-infections. Based on the increased infections, this disease poses a major health concern for public health since it is expensive to treat and easy to spread. It is also common among the females in comparison to men and can cause infertility and infant infection.
Gonorrhea is managed using antibiotics. Penicillin has been very effective in the treatment of gonorrhea in the past years. However, the increased complication of the disease has caused resistance of the current strains of bacteria to the available antibiotic injections. This has challenged the effective management of the illness. Suprax and ceftriaxone intramuscular injections are effective treatment medications for uncomplicated condition (Walker & Sweet, 2011). Effectiveness is increased through the combination of chlamydia and gonorrhea drugs since these infections are comorbid with each other which complicates the treatment further. Treatment must also involve both sexual partners to prevent reinfection. Disseminated gonococcal infection is challenging to treat and demands hospitalization of the patient and combination of therapies to maximize the outcomes. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Essay
HIV is incurable sexually transmitted diseases. As such, its treatment involves the alleviation of symptoms and the improvement of the quality of life of the patient. Treatment also prevents the contraction of opportunistic diseases since the associated therapies seek to strengthen the immunity of the patient. Medications used for treatment are referred to as antiretroviral therapy drugs. These medications are taken daily for lifetime and they are started as soon as the individual is diagnosed with HIV. These drugs do not cure the infection but decrease the viral load to undetectable levels thus minimizing the transmission chances as well as the risks for other diseases. The overall benefits of this therapy outweigh the side effects and thus the failure rate is considered negligible.
Education Plan and Follow-Up
Health education is very necessary in patients suffering from sexually transmitted diseases. The goal of health plans is to encourage prevention and initiate treatment. Effective education plans include counselling, screening and vaccination services which help individuals to learn of the available risks, learn about prevention and receive preventive items such as condoms as well as vaccinations to prevent infections. Consequently, follow-up plans are very critical for diagnosis. They help the patient to confirm their sexually transmitted disease status and help in beginning treatment as soon as possible. For instance, HIV takes up to 6 months from infection to be detected in different individuals. In this case, follow-ups help in enduring that the person is negative or positive. Moreover, the plan involves counselling sessions that helps the infected patients to cope with the anxiety and stress associated with testing positive for sexually transmitted diseases. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Essay
CDC (2017).Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV Surveillance Report, 2017; vol. 29.Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/library/reports/hiv-surveillance.html on June 16,2019
Secretary’s Minority AIDS Initiative Fund (SMAIF) (2019). Global Statistics. Retrieved from https://www.hiv.gov/hiv-basics/overview/data-and-trends/global-statistics on June 16,2019
Walker, C. K., & Sweet, R. L. (2011). Gonorrhea infection in women: prevalence, effects, screening, and management. International journal of women’s health, 3, 197.
World Health Organization (2019).HIV/AIDS.Data and Statics. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/hiv/data/en/on June 16,2019