Assignment: Line Graphs And Variables.

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Assignment: Line Graphs And Variables.

Assignment: Line Graphs And Variables.

Assignment: Line Graphs And Variables.
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Assignment: Line Graphs And Variables.
Assignment: Line Graphs And Variables.

Assignment: Line Graphs And Variables.

Line graphs show relationships between two or more variables. Source: Data from Information Please Database, 2010. Cell Phone Subscribers in the U.S., 1985–2008

Prison Population Rates per 100,000 of the population = 25 prisoners

USA 740 (Total prisoners: 2,186,230)

Russia 610 (Total prisoners: 869,814)

U.S. Virgin Islands 520 (Total prisoners: 576)

To p


FIGURE 12.5 Adding visual symbols, such as those in this picture graph, can help your audience maintain interest and understand complex information. Source: From “Prison population rates per 100,000 of the population,” Visual Aid 2, 2009. Reprinted by permission of Black Dog Publishing and Draught Associates.
Types of Presentation Aids 273

to prepare large charts or graphs. Make sure your letters are large enough to be seen clearly in the back row. Use simple words or phrases, and eliminate unnecessary words.

Flipcharts A flipchart consists of a large pad of paper resting on an easel. Flipcharts are often used in business presentations and training sessions, although the preva- lence of computer graphics software has reduced their use in corporate presentations. You can either prepare your visual aids before your speech or draw on the paper while speaking. Flipcharts are easy to use. During your presentation, you need only flip the page to reveal your next visual. Flipcharts are best used when you have brief infor- mation to display or when you want to summarize comments from audience mem- bers during a presentation.

Most experienced flipchart users recommend that you use lined paper to keep your words and drawings neat and well organized. Another suggestion is to pencil in speaking notes on the chart that only you can see. Brief notes on a flipchart are less cumbersome to use than notes on cards or a clipboard. If you do use notes, however, be sure that they are few and brief; using too many notes will tempt you to read rather than have eye contact with your audience.

Chalkboards and Whiteboards A fixture in classrooms for centuries, chalk- boards are often used to offer visual support for spoken words. Whiteboards are re- placing chalkboards in both education and business settings; these more contemporary boards serve the same function as chalkboards, but instead of writing on a black or green slate with a piece of chalk, the speaker writes on a whiteboard with a marker. Chalkboards and whiteboards have several advantages: They are inex- pensive, simple to use, and low-tech, so you don’t need to worry about extension cords or special training.

Although you can find a chalkboard or whiteboard in most classrooms and board- rooms, many public-speaking teachers discourage overuse of them. Why? When you write on the board, you have your back to your audience; you do not have eye contact! Some speakers try to avoid that problem by writing on the board before their speech starts. But then listeners often look at the visual rather than listening to the introductory remarks. Moreover, chalkboards and whiteboards are probably the least novel presenta- tion aids, so they are not particularly effective at getting or holding audience attention.

Use a board only for brief phrases or for very simple line diagrams that can be drawn in just a few seconds. It is usually better to prepare a chart, graph, or drawing on a poster or an overhead transparency than to use a chalkboard or whiteboard.
You must proofread your paper. But do not strictly rely on your computer’s spell-checker and grammar-checker; failure to do so indicates a lack of effort on your part and you can expect your grade to suffer accordingly. Papers with numerous misspelled words and grammatical mistakes will be penalized. Read over your paper – in silence and then aloud – before handing it in and make corrections as necessary. Often it is advantageous to have a friend proofread your paper for obvious errors. Handwritten corrections are preferable to uncorrected mistakes.

Use a standard 10 to 12 point (10 to 12 characters per inch) typeface. Smaller or compressed type and papers with small margins or single-spacing are hard to read. It is better to let your essay run over the recommended number of pages than to try to compress it into fewer pages.

Likewise, large type, large margins, large indentations, triple-spacing, increased leading (space between lines), increased kerning (space between letters), and any other such attempts at “padding” to increase the length of a paper are unacceptable, wasteful of trees, and will not fool your professor.

The paper must be neatly formatted, double-spaced with a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, and sides of each page. When submitting hard copy, be sure to use white paper and print out using dark ink. If it is hard to read your essay, it will also be hard to follow your argument.