What are the two major fields of science that provide the foundation for the study of nutrition?
Nutritional Principles of Nursing Discussion
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1. What are the two major fields of science that provide the foundation for the study of nutrition?
2. What is the difference between the terms nutrition and dietetics? Describe three possible activities of nutrition-related professionals.
3. What are the six major nutrient groups? What is the primary function of each?
4. What are the various categories within the DRIs? What is the purpose of each?
5. Visit the Healthy People 2020 website at www.healthypeople.gov/ and look for a nutrition or health issue of interest. Review the suggested community-based interventions for that objective and develop an intervention that would be applicable to your community and target audience.
6. Research the food patterns of a cultural or ethnic group different from your own. Using MyPlate (http://www.choosemyplate.gov), develop a 1-day menu for a child or adult in that group using foods common to their daily pattern.
1. Explain how the absorption and storage of a vitamin influence the risk of deficiency and toxicity.
2. List and describe three health problems resulting from a vitamin A deficiency.
3. What organ systems participate in the formation of the vitamin D hormone calcitriol, and what are their roles? How has the use of sunscreen and choice of soft drinks rather than milk increased the vulnerability of youth to vitamin D deficiency? How does renal failure impact vitamin D function?
4. What is an antioxidant, and how does it protect body tissues? A woman tells you that she is taking 1000 mg of vitamin E daily to prevent signs of aging.?
5. A patient tells you that he is taking multiple vitamin supplements including 1000 mg of ascorbic acid, 5 mg of thiamin, 10 mg of riboflavin, and 50 mg of vitamin B6. How would you evaluate this vitamin regimen?
6. Name the B vitamins involved in blood formation.
1. List the seven major minerals and describe their (a) function, (b) problems related to deficiency or excess, and (c) dietary sources.
2. List the 10 trace elements with proven essentiality for humans. Why has it been difficult to establish DRIs for these nutrients?
3. What causes the edema in protein-energy malnutrition?
4. Why does prolonged diarrhea lead to potassium depletion and what are the consequences?
5. In the early 1900s the Great Lakes and mountainous regions of the United States suffered from endemic iodine deficiency. What was the cause of this? How has it been eliminated?
6. You are asked to give a 10-minute talk on water at a meal site for older adults. Prepare 5 major points to educate.
1. Define fuel factor. Name the fuel factors of the energy-yielding nutrients.
2. List the three components contributing to the total energy requirement. What factors influence the BMR and why? What is the most variable component of the total energy requirement and why?
3. What is the difference between the BMR and the RMR?
4. Name the four body compartments and describe the tissues found in each. How are they measured?
5. You are performing a nutritional assessment of a man who is 6 feet 2 inches tall and weighs 248 lb. What is his BMI? Is he overweight, overfat, or do you not know? Explain.
6. An adolescent girl who weighs 142 lb wants to increase her energy expenditure by 250 kcal a day to encourage weight loss. Develop an activity plan that would mesh with her after-school hours and social time with friends.
A pregnant mother who has been eating more fish to obtain a good supply of n-3 fatty acids read a newspaper article indicating that all ocean fish are contaminated with mercury. She is concerned about the safety of her baby. Review the current advisory of the FDA (www.fda.gov and Box 9-4) regarding the consumption of fish by pregnant women. How would you advise her?
Find a print or Internet advertisement for a new dietary supplement or health remedy and identify the population to whom it is directed. Using the criteria in Box 9-5, evaluate this product. Does it appear to be helpful or harmful? How would you respond to a consumer seeking your advice on its use?
3. You are helping a day care provider develop a food safety program for her facility. Compile a list of 5 guidelines for the staff that will reduce the risk of foodborne illness among their children. (Visit the Fight BAC! Goes to Child Care website at http://www.fightbac.org/campaigns/fight-bac-goes-to-childcare for some ideas.)
4. Select a type of frozen entree (or anything in your cupboard) and review the nutrition labels on 2 examples of that product. Make a table that lists the number of servings; kcalories per serving; grams of protein, fat, and fiber; milligrams of sodium; and %DV for calcium, iron, vitamin A, and vitamin C. Compare the relative merits and disadvantages of each. Which is the best choice based on its contribution of protein, fiber, and vitamins and minerals? Which is the poorest choice in terms of fat, kcalories, and sodium?
5. Name five methods of food preservation. Which methods destroy harmful bacteria and which merely retard their growth?
8. Visit the CDC Multistate Foodborne Outbreak Investigations website and review reported outbreaks of foodborne illness that occurred over the past year (http://www.cdc.gov/outbreaknet/outbreaks.html). What foods were involved and why/how did the outbreak occur?
1. List and discuss five factors that influence the nutritional needs of the woman during pregnancy. Which factors would place a woman in a high-risk category? Why?
2. List six nutrients that are required in larger amounts during pregnancy. Identify four food sources of each.
3. Identify two common problems associated with pregnancy, and describe the dietary management of each.
4. List and describe the screening indicators and risk factors for hypertension and diabetes mellitus during pregnancy.
5. What is the recommended weight gain/trimester in pregnancy?
How is physical growth measured? What are the NCHS growth charts, and how are they used? What are the limitations of these charts? What are some clinical, biochemical, and dietary measures that are helpful in assessing the nutritional status of infants and children?
2. Why is breast-feeding the preferred method for feeding infants (discuss nutritional and psychosocial factors)?
3. You are counseling a pregnant mother who has decided not to breast-feed. Describe one type of commercial formulas that would provide an appropriate alternative feeding for her infant.
4. You are working with a mother whose newborn has been found to be allergic to milk proteins. What might be an appropriate food source for this infant?
5. What changes in physical growth and psychosocial development influence eating habits in the (a) toddler, (b) preschool child, and (c) school-age child? How do these factors influence the nutritional needs of each age-group?
6. What factors influence the changing nutritional needs of adolescents? Who is usually at increased nutritional risk during this stage—boys or girls? Why? What nutritional deficiencies may be associated with this vulnerable age?
1. Select one of the adult age-groups, and describe its physical characteristics, psychosocial development, socioeconomic status, and nutritional needs. What do you see as the most urgent topic for health promotion in this age-group? Why?
2. You are working with a middle-age adult who is overweight, sedentary, and eats mostly meat, bread, potatoes, and desserts. Does this person represent normal aging or successful aging? How would you approach this individual about his health and what suggestions would you have for improvement?
3. What is meant by the aging process? Describe how physiologic changes occurring in advanced age might influence food intake or nutritional status.
4. Discuss the economic status, ethnic and racial composition, and living arrangements of the aging population. How might these factors influence the older adult’s diet or health status? What are the implications for health and support services? Describe the individual in this age-group that you would consider to be at greatest risk. Why did you choose him or her?
Nutritional Principles of Nursing Discussion
Nutritional Principles of Nursing Discussion
1. Identify and discuss possible effects of various psychologic factors on the outcome of nutrition therapy.
2. Describe the nutritional needs of a 65-year-old widower hospitalized with coronary heart disease. Include the appropriate community agencies that you would refer the patient to for follow-up care, services, and information.
3. Describe commonly used anthropometric procedures, as well as laboratory and urine tests for nutritional
4. Select several clinical signs used to assess nutritional status, and describe what each sign shows in a malnourished person and why.
5. Describe the nature and purpose of quality assurance plans for standards of nutrition care.
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Discussion Questions (DQ)
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One or two sentence responses, simple statements of agreement or “good post,” and responses that are off-topic will not count as substantive. Substantive responses should be at least 150 words.
I encourage you to incorporate the readings from the week (as applicable) into your responses.
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In addition to the DQ responses, you must post at least one reply to peers (or me) on three separate days, for a total of three replies.
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I highly recommend using the APA Publication Manual, 6th edition.
Use of Direct Quotes
I discourage overutilization of direct quotes in DQs and assignments at the Masters’ level and deduct points accordingly.
As Masters’ level students, it is important that you be able to critically analyze and interpret information from journal articles and other resources. Simply restating someone else’s words does not demonstrate an understanding of the content or critical analysis of the content.
It is best to paraphrase content and cite your source.
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