Sleep Disorders Sample Essay
Please use this book for a resource on medications: Arcangelo, V. P., Peterson, A. M., Wilbur, V., & Reinhold, J. A. (Eds.). (2017). Pharmacotherapeutics for advanced practice: A practical approach (4th ed.). Ambler, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Discussion: Pharmacotherapy for Neurological Disorders Neurological disorders, such as headaches, seizure disorders, sleep disorders, depression, and dementia can present several complications for patients of all ages. Sleep Disorders Sample Essay . These disorders affect patients physically and emotionally, impacting judgment, school and/or job performance, and relationships with family and friends. Since these disorders may have drastic effects on patients’ lives, it is important for advanced practice nurses to effectively manage patient care. With patient factors and medical history in mind, it is the advanced practice nurse’s responsibility to manage the diagnosis, treatment, and education of patients with neurological disorders. To prepare: Review this week’s media presentation on pharmacology for the nervous system. Select one of the following neurological disorders: headaches, seizure disorders, sleep disorders, depression, or dementia. Consider the types of drugs that would be prescribed to patients to treat symptoms associated with this disorder. Sleep Disorders Sample Essay . Select one of the following factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Reflect on how this factor might impact the effects of prescribed drugs, as well as any measures you might take to help reduce negative side effects. With these thoughts in mind: By Day 3 Post a description of the neurological disorder you selected including types of drugs that would be prescribed to patients to treat associated symptoms. Then, explain how the factor you selected might impact the effects of prescribed drugs, as well as any measures you might take to help reduce negative side effects.
Sleep disorders include problems that affect the quality of sleep, sleep timing and well as the quantity of sleep and this leads to functioning problems and distress on daytime. Sleep disorders are associated with emotional and physical problems where they can cause or worsen mental health problems (Walia&Mehra, 2016). Actually, a sleep disorder can be a sign of a mental health condition. Symptoms of sleep disorders encompass sleeping excessively during the daytime, more movement while sleeping, irregular breathing when sleeping, as well as difficulty in falling asleep or maintaining sleep(Magnavita& Sergio, 2017). Sleep Disorders Sample Essay
There are various kinds of sleep disorders and they are normally categorized in accordance to how they affect individual, behaviors, breathing problems, difficulty sleeping, sleep-wake cycles etc. The most common forms of sleep disorders consist of; insomnia: this is where an individual has difficulties in falling asleep or maintaining sleep throughout the night; sleep apnea where an individual undergoes abnormal breathing patterns when they are sleeping(Nunn et al, 2016). Sleep apnea is typified by regular episodes of interruption of respiratory airflow while sleeping; Restless legs syndrome (RLS) that is a form of sleep movement disorder that leads to an itchy sensation on the legs during sleep and a person feels the urge to move the legs; and narcolepsy which is a condition typified by excessive sleeping during daytime and a person falls asleep suddenly over daytime (Nunn et al, 2016). Sleep Disorders Sample Essay
Drugs to Treat Symptoms Associated with Sleep Disorders
Benzodiazepines: Benzodiazepines have been effectively utilized in treating common sleep disorders such as insomnia. Some times of benzodiazepines include clonazepam, alprazolam, temazepam, chlordiazepoxide, lorazepam, and diazepam. The efficacy and classification of benzodiazepines vary in accordance with the pharmacodynamics properties(Nunn et al, 2016). Clonazepam, chlordiazepoxide,and diazepam have comparatively long action duration while alprazolam, lorazepam and temazepam have comparatively intermediate action duration. On the other hand, triazolam is considered to have a short duration of action. Long-lasting drugs are normally utilized when patients have problems in maintaining sleep throughout the night whereas short-acting agents are used when a patient has a problem in sleep initiation (Walia&Mehra, 2016). Benzodiazepines have been shown to effectively treat insomnia by reducing sleep latency and by reducing nocturnal awakenings. Evidence also shows the efficacy of clonazepam in the treatment of insomnia allied to restless legs syndrome. However, benzodiazepines are associated with adverse effects including dependency and tolerance problems (Magnavita& Sergio, 2017). Sleep Disorders Sample Essay
Antidepressants: Tricyclic and heterocyclic antidepressants are often used in treating sleep disorders. Tricyclic antidepressants utilized in the treatment of sleep problems encompass nortriptyline, doxepin, and amitriptyline(Nunn et al, 2016).
Anticonvulsants: Some anticonvulsants have been shown to have sedative effects and thus they can be effective in treating sleeping disorders such as insomnia. For instance, gabapentin can be utilized in the treatment of various types of pain and can be effective in treating insomnia as well as symptomatically relief of RLS.Gabapentin acts on the neuronal calcium channels to induce neuropsychiatric effects that cause sedation(Magnavita& Sergio, 2017).
Antihistamines: Antihistamines like diphenhydramine have been shown to hinder central histamine H1 receptors and hence generating sleepy effects. Histamine is awake-promotingneurotransmitter and hence antihistamines hinder the effect of this wake-promoting neurotransmitter. Examples of antihistamines include hydroxyzine(Magnavita& Sergio, 2017).Sleep Disorders Sample Essay
Neuroleptics: Neuroleptics are dopamine antagonists and hence they have a sedation effect and therefore useful in treating sleep disorders such as insomnia. The most commonly utilized neuroleptic is quetiapine (Magnavita& Sergio, 2017).
How Age might Impact the Effects of Prescribed Drugs
Age is an important factor affecting the impact of the prescribed medications. For example, the elderly population loses the ability to metabolize medication with age. As individuals age, there is a reduction of water within the body and the fat tissue increases. Therefore, in the elderly population, medications dissolving in water are highly concentrated due to lack of adequate water to dissolve them (Alomar, 2015).Sleep Disorders Sample Essay
In the case of medication prescribed for sleep disorders, age is an important factor to consider. For example, the elderly are more susceptible to developing dependence after long-term of benzodiazepines and also this population experiences anxiety and insomnia after discontinuing benzodiazepines(Guina&Merril, 2018). Another factor that needs to be considered when prescribing sleep medications is the susceptibility to falls and fractures for the elderly population. Evidence shows that benzodiazepines are allied to falls because they increase reaction time, impair vision, cause sedation and also disrupt gait and balance(Guina&Merril, 2018). Lastly,benzodiazepines have been shown to lead to cognitive deficits such as memory and attention problems, especially with the elderly population. All these factors need to be considered when prescribing these medications (Guina&Merril, 2018). Sleep Disorders Sample Essay
Measures to help Reduce Negative Side Effects
The most effective measure is to educate the patient regarding the potential risks of using the medications. The patient will also be educated about the potential side effects so that they can identify them early enough and avoid activities such as walking when feeling dizzy. Tapering is another measure that can reduce side effects. A tapering plan has been shown to be effective in safe discontinuing use of medications such as benzodiazepines (Protocor& Matt, 2013).
Alomar M. (2015). Factors affecting the development of adverse drug reactions (Review article). Saudi Pharm J. 22(2), 83–94.
Guina J &Merril B. (2018).Benzodiazepines I: Upping the Care on Downers: The Evidence of Risks, Benefits,and Alternatives. J Clin Med. 7(2), 17.
Magnavita N & Sergio G. (2017).Sleep, Health and Wellness at Work: A Scoping Review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 14(11), 1347.
Nunn C, Samson D & Krystal A. (2016).Shining evolutionary light on human sleep and sleep disorders.Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health. 1(1), 227–243.
Protocor A & Matt B. (2013).Clinical Pharmacology in Sleep Medicine.ISRN Pharmacol.2012(2012).
Walia H &Mehra R. (2016).Overview of Common Sleep Disorders and Intersection with Dermatologic Conditions.Int J Mol Sci. 17(5): 654. Sleep Disorders Sample Essay