Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections Management in Women

Mr. J.R. Is A 73-Year-Old Man, Who Was Admitted To The Hospital With Clinical Manifestations Of Gastroenteritis And Possible Renal Injury.
September 14, 2022

Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections Management in Women

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most frequent clinical bacterial infections in women, accounting for nearly 25% of all infections. Around 50–60% of women will develop UTIs in their lifetimes. Escherichia coli is the organism that causes UTIs in most patients. Recurrent UTIs (RUTI) are mainly caused by reinfection by the same pathogen. Having frequent sexual intercourse is one of the greatest risk factors for RUTIs. In a subgroup of individuals with coexisting morbid conditions, complicated RUTIs can lead to upper tract infections or urosepsis. Although the initial treatment is antimicrobial therapy, use of different prophylactic regimens and alternative strategies are available to reduce exposure to antibiotics.

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) occur more often in women than in men, at a ratio of 8:1. Approximately 50–60% of women report at least one UTI in their lifetime, and one in three will have at least one symptomatic UTI necessitating antibiotic treatment by age 24.

Normally, the urinary tract is sterile, but bacteria may rise from the perianal region, possibly leading to UTI. Pathogens in the bladder may stay silent or can cause irritative symptoms like urinary frequency and urgency, and 8% of women may have asymptomatic bacteriuria. If bacteria enter the blood stream, they could cause severe complications, including septicaemia, shock and, rarely, death., The definition of recurrent urinary tract infection (RUTI) is three UTIs with three positive urine cultures during a 12-month period, or two infections during the previous 6 months.

This article provides an up-to-date review of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors, diagnosis, management and prevention of RUTIs in women.