Public Health;History and political structure

Module 6: Lecture Materials & Resources
August 3, 2022
Community and Professional Service Paper
August 3, 2022

Public Health;History and political structure

History and political structure

Sri Lanka is a multi-party democracy with a semi-presidential system in which the President serves as the head of state and government. The President exercises executive power on the recommendation of the Prime Minister and the Cabinet of Ministers.1 Major Political party in Sri Lanka includes All Ceylon Islamic United Front, All Ceylon Makkal Congress, All Ceylon Malay Political Union, All Ceylon Tamil Congress, and Aziz Democratic Workers Congress.2 The two main ethnic groups on the island, the Sinhalese and the Tamils, and its two main religions, Buddhism and Hinduism, all immigrated to the island from India. Indian culture is also strongly present in a variety of fields, including astronomy, art, architecture, literature, and music.3

Overview of Sri Lanka demographic information

The population of Sri Lanka is projected to grow to 21.41 million people by the end of 2020.4 According to current estimates; the population will peak at 22.19 million people in 2037, which will start to decline. The population is projected to decrease to 15.46 million people by 2100.4Since 2000, Sri Lanka’s population growth has been less than 1%. The population increased by 0.42 percent, or around 89,000 individuals, between 2019 and 2020. Although Sri Lanka has a considerable negative net migration that slows population growth, the fertility rate of 2.21 children per woman is higher than the population replacement rate of 2.1 children per woman. In the following decades, as the fertility rate continues to fall.4

Main characteristics of Sri Lanka humanitarian crisis

Time is running out for Sri Lanka on many fronts. With 6.7 million people urgently needing humanitarian aid, Sri Lanka’s economic crisis is quickly becoming one of the greatest humanitarian disasters in decades. The Ministry of Health is collaborating closely to supply hospitals with critical medications currently in limited supply.5 Over 20,000 people, including protesters and security personnel, have received emergency medical care from first responders and Red Cross ambulances throughout the most recent protests. In addition, over a thousand people received ambulance services from SLRCS. They were taken to hospitals for additional care.5As the humanitarian effects of the economic crisis continue to grow, millions of people are experiencing shortages of food, gasoline, cooking gas, vital supplies, and medicines.5 Sri Lanka’s health workforce’s capacity deal with the probably heightened demand for medical .personnel.

As the humanitarian effects of the economic crisis continue to grow, millions of people are experiencing shortages of vital supplies and medicines.6 The current crisis, with increasing shortages of medicines and other essentials, has a profound impact on maternal and child health, social determinants of health, and the threat of another wave of COVID-19 cannot be ruled out. The current medicine shortage has made day-to-day service provision of healthcare difficult for government and private hospitals. Thus, in the instance of increased demand for medicines – be it the pandemic, a natural disaster, or any other crisis – Sri Lanka looks at severe consequences, including loss of lives.3


Country Facts9

Sri Lanka has roughly 65,610 square kilometers. Its coastline stretches for 1,340 kilometers. This country has an average population density of about 319 people per square kilometer when the amount of land available is compared to the number of residents. Columbo capital city, is the oldest, most significant, and most populated city, with a population of 648 034 people.

Events responsible for crisis

Bombing (2019)

Reduce taxes

Banned on import of chemical fertilizer

Population Rank


Growth Rate

0.30% (174th)

World Percentage



348/km² (38th)

Land Area

62,710 km²


1. Roberts M. Exploring confrontation: Sri Lanka: politics, culture, and history. Routledge; 2021 September 1.

2.”The Devastating Health Consequences of Sri Lanka’s Economic Collapse.” The BMJ. Last modified June 29, 2022.

3.” Sri Lanka’s Public Health System Crippled by the Economic Crisis is Calling out for Help — Perspectives on Global Health.” Perspectives on Global Health. Last modified April 23, 2022.

4. “Demographics of Sri Lanka.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Last modified February 25, 2002.


5Vaidyanathan, Rajini. “Sri Lanka Healthcare on the verge of Collapse in Economic Crisis.” BBC News. Last modified April 17, 2022.

6. WHO | World Health Organization. Accessed July 27, 2022.

7.”The Devastating Health Consequences of Sri Lanka’s Economic Collapse.” The BMJ. Last modified June 29, 2022.


8.” Exploring Confrontation | Sri Lanka: Politics, Culture and History | M.” Taylor & Francis. Accessed July 27, 2022.


9.” Sri Lanka Population 2022 (Demographics, Maps, Graphs).” 2022 World Population by Country. Accessed July 27, 2022.

“Sri Lanka on the brink of Humanitarian Crisis.” IFRC. Accessed July 27, 2022.

9.Peiris, G. Hubert and Arasaratnam, . Sinnappah. “Sri Lanka.” Encyclopedia Britannica, July 24, 2022.

Economic status

A few years ago, Sri Lanka’s economy expanded quickly enough to give most people jobs and financial security. Its officials are feverishly attempting to negotiate a bailout with the International Monetary Fund. Still, the country is now in a condition of collapse and depends on handouts from India and other nations.6 The 22-million-person South Asian Island nation is experiencing a complete economic breakdown that is worse than the typical financial crises in developing countries. It has resulted in political unrest and violence and made it difficult for the average person to afford food, fuel, and other necessities. Sri Lanka’s sudden economic collapse has broken its healthcare system. Sri Lanka’s economic crisis caused by years of excessive borrowing and poor policies of the current administration has plunged the country into an unprecedented crisis. Sri Lankan Rupee has become the worst performing currency in the world; the country faces an increasing scarcity of essentials.6 The public is continuously protesting, calling for the resignations of the President, prime minister, and the administration, highlighting the government’s mismanagement, apathy, and corruption.

The Office of the United Nations Commissioner for Human Rights publicly condemns the government’s efforts to curb the protest. In 2019, the government cut taxes and incurred large debts, depleting the treasury just before COVID-19 arrived. Due to the sharp decline in its foreign exchange reserves, Sri Lanka could not cover import costs or protect its battered currency.5

Sri Lanka map9

Sri Lanka political map

‘s rupee.8