PDHPE Study Notes for Preliminary Exam Essay
What does health mean to individuals?
Health is the interaction between the physical, social, emotional, mental and spiritual dimensions. Many terms have emerged to express the nature of health, such as well-being, wellness, health, status, and state of being. Health is dynamic, changing over time and means different things to different people during different times in their life. Health can be viewed as relative in relation to another period of time or in relation to one’s potential. Different perceptions of health may explain the nature of particular health issues and how best to intervene.PDHPE Study Notes for Preliminary Exam Essay
The health continuum ‘measures’ a person’s health at any one moment in time. Out health status changes in relation to our circumstances.
The public health approach looks to develop solutions to social health problems. Media can impact on a person’s health in a positive and/or negative way. Most young Australians rate their health from good to excellent. However, some other groups of Australians experience poorer health. Education provides young people with knowledge, understanding and skills about health. What influences the health of individuals?PDHPE Study Notes for Preliminary Exam Essay
The determinants of health include individual, socio-cultural, socio-economic and environmental factors. Many factors influence the health of individuals and these factors can either protect health or place it as risk. Some determinants can be modified, such as where one lives, while others cannot, such as age. Health is socially constructed.
Most Australians have experiences improving standards of health; however, there exists a large gap between the rich and the poor. The conceptual framework of health illustrates how one group of determinants can influence and determine the nature of another group of determinants. Individual factors that influence health include genetics and knowledge, skills and attitudes. Socio-cultural factors that influence health include family, peers, media, religion and culture. Socio-economic factors that influence health include employment, education and income. Environmental factors that influence health include geographic location, access to health services and access to technology. What strategies help to promote the health of individuals? PDHPE Study Notes for Preliminary Exam Essay
Health promotion aims to help people improve their health and is the responsibility of individuals, communities and all levels of government. Health is a shared responsibility among individuals, community, health professionals, health services institutions and governments. A variety of health promotion approaches and strategies are used to target particular groups to improve their health. Strategies employed promotion are enabling, in the implementation of health are enabling, creating environments that are supportive of health and advocating to create essential conditions for health. The Ottawa Charter provides a framework for the implementation of health promotion areas. The principles of social justice include equity, diversity and supportive environments.
How do the musculoskeletal and cardiorespiratory systems of the body influence and respond to movement? The bones of the axial skeleton (cranium, vertebral column, rib, sacrum and coccyx) provide bases of attachment for the bones of the appendicular skeleton (bones of the pelvis, legs, shoulder girdle and arms). The major bones of the body articulate at synovial (movable) joints and allow movement to occur. Muscles pull on bones to bring about movement. Muscles work in pairs: while one muscle contracts (acts as the agonist) the opposite muscle will relax (acts as the antagonist). Some muscles also act as stabilisers. Isotonic contractions feature a change in muscle length. In a concentric isotonic contraction, the muscle shortens to bring the bones closer together, while in an eccentric isotonic contraction, the muscles lengthen, thereby increasing the distance between the bones. PDHPE Study Notes for Preliminary Exam Essay
The tension created in an isometric contraction neither shortens nor lengthens the muscles involved. The respirator system facilitates the movement of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) from areas of high pressure to one of low pressure in an attempt to equalise the pressure. Pulmonary circulation circulates blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs and then back to the heart. Systemic circulation pumps blood from the left side of the heart to the body tissues and then back to the right side of the heart. Blood pressure is the force that blood exerts on the walls of blood vessels. The circulatory system is comprised of the heart, arteries, veins and capillaries and the blood. What is the relationship between physical fitness, training and movement efficiency? The eleven components of fitness are health related (necessary for the efficient functioning of the body) and skill-related (of importance to movement performance). PDHPE Study Notes for Preliminary Exam Essay
There are five health-related components of fitness: cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility and body composition. There are six skill-related components of fitness: power, speed, agility, coordination, balance and reaction time. There is a clear relationship between physical fitness, health and performance. The FITT principle (Frequency, Intensity, Time, and Type) can be applied to any exercise program based on improving aerobic fitness. The body demonstrates five immediate physiological responses to exercise. These are changes to heart rate, ventilation rate, stroke volume, cardiac output and lactate levels. These changes occur to allow the working muscles to receive an increased supply of oxygen and nutrients and to remove wastes, such as carbon dioxide and water. How do biomechanical principles influence movement? PDHPE Study Notes for Preliminary Exam Essay
Performance can be enhanced through understanding the basic biomechanical principles that underpin movement. Measuring how far, how fast or how consistently a body moves can help athletes improve their speed, velocity and acceleration rate. Maintaining balance and stability is vital in all sporting activities. The broader the base of support, the more stable an object or performer becomes. Efficient biomechanical techniques reduce the negative effects of drag and resistance on performance in fluid environments. An object will float if the force pushing it up (the buoyant force) is equal to or greater than the force pushing it down (gravity).
A body that is partially or totally immersed in a fluid will experience buoyancy that is equal to the weight of the volume of fluid displaced by that body. Force can divert or slow the movement of an object upon which it acts. Understanding how to apply and absorb force effectively can improve performance. What are the main priorities for assessment and management of first aid patients? Performing a situational analysis of an emergency first aid solution involves establishing what has happened, preparing a ‘plan of attack’, performing what you have planned, and making use of resources. When approaching a casualty, beware of hidden dangers, assess the casualty, consider your personal safety first and then treat the casualty on site. The primary survey and secondary survey are used to properly assess a casualty’s condition and to allow for better action when treating the casualty. The steps in the primary survey can be remembered using the acronym DRSABCD: Danger, Response, Send for help, Airway, Breathing, Compressions, and Defibrillation. The primary survey helps the first aider to establish the casualty’s condition and, if the condition is life threatening, identify the appropriate actions to be taken. The steps in managing injuries can be remembered using the acronym STOP: Stop, Talk, Observe, and Prevent further injury. PDHPE Study Notes for Preliminary Exam Essay
The secondary survey requires observation of signs and symptoms to identify injuries. It involves checking for injuries to the head, spine, chest, abdomen, pelvic area and limbs. Crisis management involves determining what first aid actions need to be taken. It may require the use of rescue breathing and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The treatment of bleeding, shock, neck and spinal injuries are of high priority. Removing a casualty from danger and referring them to medical assistance are vital and especially important when the casualty is unconscious. How should the major types of injuries and medical conditions be managed in first aid situations? Cuts are generally treated with pressure and elevation to help limit blood loss and by resting the casualty. Fractures and dislocations often occur from heavy impacts. PDHPE Study Notes for Preliminary Exam Essay
When treating the casualty, it is essential to limit his or her movement and have the casualty seek medical assistance as soon as possible. It is important that a first aid person learns how to apply slings, splints and bandages. This will help ensure the person can effectively manage a range of injuries. Heart attack, stroke, diabetes, epilepsy, asthma, anaphylaxis and poisonings are common medical conditions encountered in first aid emergency situations. A first aid person needs to learn how to manage these conditions. The pressure immobilisation technique and application of cold compress or hot water are common methods used to treat bites and stings. Education provides young people with knowledge, understanding and skills about health. What does exercise mean to different people? PDHPE Study Notes for Preliminary Exam Essay
Exercise can involve a wide range of activities, including leisure and recreation pursuits and competitive and non-competitive sports. Regular exercise improves fitness and thus our overall health. People’s attitude towards fitness have changed in recent years as a result of changing lifestyles, more leisure time and increasing levels of disease associated with sedentary lifestyles. Fitness is a commodity; it’s a good or service that requires careful consideration before purchase. Increased technology has reduces the amount of time that needs to be spent on daily chores and, as a result, has decreased the amount of incidental physical activity in which we participate. While the amount of available leisure time has increased, physical activity levels have decreased. What are the ways people choose to exercise for fitness?
People may choose to improve their fitness by participating in either individual or group fitness activities. A person’s lifestyle and personal circumstances have a strong influence on his or her fitness choices. Individual fitness activities allow for flexibility in timing that is based around the participant’s commitments. Group fitness activities involve activity with other people and are often chosen with the view to establish greater social connections and provide motivation to continue with the program. What influences people’s choice of fitness activities? PDHPE Study Notes for Preliminary Exam Essay
Fitness activities can be undertaken in a range of setting, including in the home, at community facilities, in fitness centres, with personal trainers, with exercise clubs and with cultural groups. The setting chosen will reflect the needs and personality of the participant. When choosing an exercise setting, participants need to consider their needs and abilities to ensure they choose a setting that will help them to continue exercising in that environment.
Fitness products and services are heavily advertised and promoted in an effort to attract consumers. Consumers must be discerning in their choice of products and services and check the accuracy of the information that is provided to them. There are many motivating factors and barriers to participation in fitness activities. The fitness industry attempts to overcome many of these barriers and provide environments when consumers are give support and motivation to help them maintain their programs. PDHPE Study Notes for Preliminary Exam Essay
Better health for individuals:
Health: health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, also including the ability to lead a socially and economically productive lifestyle. Four dimensions of health:
Physical health: Refers to the physical condition of the body. Indicators of good physical health include efficient functioning of the body, body weight, fitness levels and resistance to disease. Social health: Refers to your interaction with your peers, family, friends and others. Good social health means being able to establish and maintain positive relationships. Mental health: (a.k.a. emotional health) Refers to your ability to deal with stressful situations, your feelings, emotions and self-worth. Positive mental health is important for enhanced self-esteem and conflict resolution. Spiritual health: This varies from person to person. One person may view spiritual health as having an affinity to their particular religion. Others may view spiritual health as being in tune with themselves or their sense of purpose and meaning in life. Perceptions of health as social constructs: PDHPE Study Notes for Preliminary Exam Essay
The NSW BoS defines a social construct as ‘a concept that has meaning and shared understanding based on people’s way of seeing, interpreting, interrelating and interacting’. Each individual’s perception of health will therefore reflect their own unique circumstances, upbringing and environment. When health is perceived as a social construct, it allows us to consider the factors that influence an individual’s behaviour. It provides opportunities to address the issues of health inequities and social justice for all sectors of all communities.
It challenged the motion that health is solely and individual’s responsibility. Viewing health as a social construct recognises that health varies from individual to individual and social context in which they live. It allows us to consider the factors that influence an individual’s behaviour. It provides an opportunity to address the isues of health inequities and social justice for all sectors of the population. The determinants of health: PDHPE Study Notes for Preliminary Exam Essay
An individual’s health is determined by a range of factors acting in various combinations. Some factors have the potential to impact a person’s health more than others and some factors are not modifiable. Individual factors: knowledge and skills, attitudes, genetics. Sociocultural factors: family, peers, media, religion, culture. Socioeconomic factors: employment, education, income.
Environmental factors: geographic location, access to health services, technology. The degree to which an individual can modify their health determinants varies greatly. For example, the significant issue of age is a factor in which the individual has no control over, whereas an individual’s attitude to accessing health care may be modified quite effectively. Health promotion:
Health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over and to improve their health. To reach a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, an individual or group must be able to identify and to realise aspirations, to satisfy needs, and to change or cope with the environment. Health is therefore, seen as a resource for everyday life, not the objective of living. Health is a positive concept emphasising social and personal resources, as well as physical capabilities. Effective health promotion acknowledges that individuals need support and resources from the community, government and environment to achieve and maintain good health. Each of these groups is responsible for health promotion: Individuals. PDHPE Study Notes for Preliminary Exam Essay
International organisations (e.g. WHO, United Nations, etc.) The traditional approach to improving the health status of individuals was to provide improvements to medical treatment, drugs and public health. Effective health promotion now recognises that a range of approaches and strategies are needed to address the wide range of health determinants in additional to an ongoing commitment to medical advancement. Holistic approach to fitness:
Fitness industries are realising that they are able to sell a whole package to their clients. Holistic approaches to life are being bandied about in the glossy brochures and through the mouths of membership managers up and down the country. The fitness industry are realising that fitness is not all about exercise. Gyms can provide a haven from the extremes of modern living and that they can do as much for the emotional side of human experiences as they can for the physical. Preventative medical approaches: PDHPE Study Notes for Preliminary Exam Essay
Preventative medical approaches specifically aim to treat and prevent disease by addressing physiological risk factors. These approaches can be categorised into three distinct actions: Primary prevention: targets populations, including those without obvious risk factors. Secondary prevention: targets sections of the population reporting increased risk (e.g. family history). Tertiary prevention: targets those people already affected by disease and aims to avoid recurrence of allowing the disease to become chronic. Public health approaches:
These approaches are broad strategies that address social and environmental health determinants to affect improved health status. Examples of public health approaches include health promoting schools and workplace health promotion. The Ottawa Charter as an effective health promotion framework: The thirtieth WHO (World Health Assembly), held in 1977, had highlighted the importance of promoting health so that all the international citizens had an “economically productive” level of health by the year 2000. The Ottawa Charter contains five action areas for health promotion: 1. Developing personal skills. PDHPE Study Notes for Preliminary Exam Essay
2. Creating supportive environments
3. Strengthening community actions
4. Reorienting health services
5. Building healthy public policy
Develop personal skills:
Health promotion supports personal and social development through providing information, education for health and enhancing life skills. By so doing, it increases the options available to people to exercise more control over their own health and over their environments, and to make choices conductive to good health. Enabling people to learn throughout life, to prepare them for all of its stages and to cope with chronic illness and injuries is essential. This has to be facilitated in school, home, work and community settings. Action is required through educational, professional, commercial and voluntary bodies, and within the institutions themselves. Create supportive environments:
Our societies are complex and interrelated. Health cannot be separated from other goals. The inextricable links between people and their environment constitute the basis for a socioecological approach to health. The overall guiding principle for the world, nations, regions and communities alike is the need to encourage reciprocal maintenance – to take care of each other, our communities and our natural environment. The conservation of natural resources throughout the world should be emphasized as a global responsibility. PDHPE Study Notes for Preliminary Exam Essay
Changing patterns of life, work and leisure have a significant impact of health. Work and leisure should be a source of health for people. The way society organise work should help create a health society. Health promotion generates living and working conditions that are safe, stimulating, satisfying and enjoyable. Systematic assessment of the health impact of a rapidly changing environment – particularly in areas of technology, work, energy production and urbanisation is essential and must be followed by action to ensure positive benefit to the health of the public. The protection of the natural and built environments and the conservation of natural resources must be addressed in any health promotion strategy. Strengthen community action:
Health promotion works thought concrete and effective community action in setting priorities, making decisions, planning strategies and implementing them to achieve better health. At the heart of this process is the empowerment of communities, their ownership and control of their own endeavours and destinies. Community development draws on existing human and material resources in the community to enhance self-help and social support, and to develop flexible systems for strengthening public participation and direction of health matters. This requires full and continuous access to information, learning opportunities for health, as well as funding support. PDHPE Study Notes for Preliminary Exam Essay
Reorient health services:
The responsibility for health promotion in health services is shared among individuals, community groups, health professionals, health service institutions and governments. They must work together towards a health care system which contributes to the pursuit of health. The role of the health sector must move increasingly in a health promotion direction, beyond its responsibility for providing clinical and curative services. Health services need to embrace an expanded mandate which is sensitive and respects cultural needs.
This mandate should support the needs of individuals and communities for a healthier life, and open channels between the health sector and broader social, political, economic and physical environmental components. Reorienting health services also requires stronger attention to health research as well as changed in professional education and training. This must lead to a change of attitude and organisation of health services, which refocuses on the total needs of the individual as a whole person. Building health public policy: PDHPE Study Notes for Preliminary Exam Essay
Health promotion goes beyond health care. It puts health on the agenda of policy-makers in all sectors ad at all levels, directing them to be aware of the health consequences of their decisions and to accept their responsibilities for health. Health promotion policy combines diverse but complementary approaches including legislation, fiscal measures, taxation and organisational change. It is coordinated action that leads to health, income and social policies that foster greater equity. Joint action contributes to ensuring safer and healthier goods and services, healthier public services, and cleaner, more enjoyable environments. Health promotion policy required the identification of obstacles to the adoption of healthy public policies in non-health sectors, and ways of removing them. The aim must be to make the healthier choice the easier choice for policy-makers as well. Principles of social justice:
Social justice is a principle which encourages fair and equitable distribution of resources and services to all sectors of the population. It acknowledges the Australia is diverse in terms of multiculturalism, socioeconomic status and geographic location and this often creates inequities in health status. Social justice is a fundamental principle of health promotion and aims to address inequities and empower all Australians to lead full and healthy lives. Medicare is one example of the Australian government supporting social justice and ensuring that all Australians, regardless of socioeconomic status, religion, gender or race, have access to basic medical care. Supportive environment: PDHPE Study Notes for Preliminary Exam Essay
It is crucial for an individual to develop their personal skills if they are going to overcome any negative influence their environment may have on them. Developing personal skills supports the notion of supportive environments by empowering individuals through the teaching of knowledge and skills, which they can pass on to others in their environment. If a parent is educated about healthy food habits, they will provide nutritious foods for their children, which will reduce the chance of them developing a diet-related illness such as diabetes. Equity:
Equity involves allocating resources fairly so everyone has the same opportunity to achieve good health. This does not necessarily mean allocating the same resources to all sectors of the population, as some disadvantaged groups may require additional funding to enable a similar health outcome to be achieved. Diversity:
By acknowledging the diverse population groups that make up the Australian population, health promotion can recognise the particular needs of different groups and develop strategies to suit.
The body in motion:
The average adult human body consists of 206 bones. They range in shape and size and serve several functions: A support network for the attachment of muscles.
Protection of internal organs.
Allows movement to occur when muscles contract.
A storage house for minerals such as calcium.
Produces blood cells from within the bone marrow.
Directional anatomical terms:
Anatomical position: the individual stands erect facing frontward with their palms facing forward. Superior: towards the head; e.g. the hip is superior to the knee. Inferior: away from the head; e.g. the foot is inferior to the knee. Anterior: towards the front of the body; e.g. the sternum is anterior to the lungs. Posterior: towards the back of the body; e.g. the clavicle is posterior to the sternum. Medial: towards the midline of the body; e.g. the tibia is on the medial side of the leg. Lateral: away from the midline of the body; e.g. the fibula is on the lateral side of the body. Proximal: towards the body; e.g. the elbow is proximal to the hand. Distal: away from the body; e.g. the hand is distal to the elbow. Structure and function of synovial joints:
A joint is a place where two or more bones meet. Joints can be divided into three types: Fixed or immovable (such as the joints found in the skull).
Cartilaginous or slightly moveable (such as the vertebral column). Synovial or freely moveable (such as those found in the limbs). Characteristics:
The inner membrane of tissue that lines a joint. The synovial membrane secretes synovial fluid. Synovial fluid
Lubricates the joint and reduce the friction between bones in joints. Tendons
Connects muscle tissues to the bones.
Connects bone to bone to form a joint.
Cartilage acts as a cushion between joints, to prevent the bones from rubbing against each other and reduce friction in the joint with movement.
Ball and socket
Flexion: bending or decreasing the angle at a joint.
Extension: straitening or increasing the angle at a joint.
Adduction: moving a body part towards to centre or midline.
Abduction: moving a body part away from the midline.
Circumduction: moving a joint in a circular motion. It can take place at joints that flex, extend, adduct or abduct. Rotation: turning or twisting a bone along its axis.
Dorsiflexion: only takes place at one joint, and it involves moving the toes towards the shinbone. Plantarflexion: only takes place at one joint, and it involves moving the toes away from the shinbone. Muscular system: