Health Care Information System Essay
Health Management Information Systems (HMIS) Evolution
The evolution of health care information management system has been backed the advances in the information and communication technologies. This paper looks at the use of the Electronic Health/Medical Records (EHR/EMR) as an emerging technology which help in improving the information management in healthcare sector. There is paradigm shift from the traditional information management system to new technological information management is taking effect. Management improves with improved and effective health care information management system (Ludwick and Doucette, 2009). The health information system as a process involves data recording, storage and retrieval for processing when decisions are needed to be made. The managerial decision may include setting out of plans, organizing and controlling all activities associated with health care provision and improvement. The healthcare aspects that can be managed at the clinical levels include the optimal healthcare provision to patients, research facilitation and the training of personnel. Nations world wide are adopting the new health information management system and the use of electronic health records technologies (McInnes, Saltman & Kidd, 2006). Health Care Information System Essay
The Electrical Medical Record (EMR) or Electronic Health Records (EHR) is a computer information management system adopted by healthcare providers to record detailed information on the patients to include the following: medical history, patient’s demographics, summaries of encounters, intolerances, lab test results and allergies. The EMR/EHR may include details of the physician report, order of entry of the support and management of the results. EHR entails the use of technology in order to improve on the service delivery and meets the demands of the consumers. Technology through the use of EHRs not only improves on the efficiency but also helps in saving time. What is vital in this technology is accessibility and adaptability in order for the successful implementation and its adoption. The EHR should benefit everybody and should work in tandem with the non-traditional sources of data.
An application of the EMR technology can be seen in the following scenario of managing diabetes. The lapses in the care of diabetic patients have been due to the lack of engagement between the healthcare service providers and the patients themselves. This however can be changed with the internet interventions and technological advancement. The Electronic Medical Records (EHR) can now be used to improve the care for diabetic patients. The advancement in technology has led to the adoption of computer support systems in giving recommendations for the care to cases with high risks. Personal Health Records shares between patients and the service providers can be important in managing an individual life behaviors hence assisting in self care. The EHR is helpful in communicating crucial individuals details hence assist in behavior management. This is made possible with the integration of the Web-based systems of patients with their EHR which is efficient in monitoring and providing feedback. Applications are also available which patients can use on their smart phones to monitor their health. The challenge can only be in the compliance with the technology thus making it necessary to design user friendly tools to be applied in healthcare management (Benhamou, 2011). Health Care Information System Essay
The EMR can also be utilized in the ambulance care where medical information is crucial and needed urgently. A study by Fuji, Galt and Seroca (2008) cross examines the consumer’s awareness and participation in the ambulatory care under the physicians and the use of the personal health record (PHR). The ambulance care physicians embraced advance in Information Technology and have adopted the Electronic Health Record (EHR) system in Nebraska and South Dakota. The adoption was staged based on the nature of the patients which include gender, sex and age. The awareness level was found to be low and it was found also that the physicians who adopted EHR’s were aware of the PHRs and outlined that the system not only saved time but improved on efficiency (Fuji, Galt, & Serocca, 2008).
The article “Is Your EHR Ready for the ADA?” article gives a summary on how the Electronic Health Records should be incorporated and integrated with the new advancement in the Information Technology (Gallegos, 2013). The EHR should be beneficial to all patients including those who are disabled. The patients should be assisted in order to enjoy the services from the EHR. The adoption should comply with the Americans who are disabled with reference to their Act i.e. Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). ADA provides the guidelines on which the disabled can be handled and assisted where necessary. It protects the violations of their rights and treatment in the public sphere. The health workers are challenged by the act to perform their chores well and in accordance with the set standards of the health care facility (Gallegos, 2013). The use of Information technology not only promotes innovation but also makes the Health facilities be compliant with the new advancement in technology. The health workers need to be taught on the IT good practices and how to help patients embrace this technology. Health Care Information System Essay
The use of the technology helps in improving the efficiency and effectiveness of healthcare service delivery to patients. It makes organization to be modest and improve on their service provision. Personnel tasks are made easier and more comfortable than before. Time is saved for patients when seeking medical assistance and treatment can be easily undertaken. The application of technologies in managing health information have general improved on the safetyof the patients, mitigate during resource shortages and efficiency of the physicians in undertaking their chores (Ludwick and Doucette, 2009). However, the systems may compromise the performance of the physicians in their office and intimidate them together with their staff. This may give rise to an increase occurrence of medical errors which is detrimental to the health of the people (Ludwick and Doucette, 2009). Barriers to the implementation of the technologies in practice and in conformity limit the success of the process. Patient’s privacy is questionable if the system is accessed by unauthorized persons. System can also be hacked and thus data security compromised.
EMR impacts greatly on digital equity as the system is not discriminatory and is cost effective. The availability of records online when needed is instrumental in managing of patient’s health. Medical history and previous laboratory tests prove instrumental in fast tracking treatment for instance in case of emergency situations. Quality and efficient healthcare services can be delivered with the adoption of the system. This is so because it saves time, avoid repeated testing on patients and ensure that the patients are only given prescriptions which are suitable to them. Medical history ensures that errors in medications are avoided and help in identifying conditions which may be recurrent.
From an administrator’s perspective, the implementation of the EMR/EHR technologies will greatly impact on the efficiency and effectiveness in health care provision. The adoption the EMR technology is simple and requires minimal adjustments. The main factor to consider is the equipment and personnel to operate. Equipment can be sourced from the companies producing them and installed within an organization. Personnel can be trained on the use of the system and provided with the necessary support. Thereafter medical history of patients in an organization can be transfer from the old system to the new system and patients’ database built. Efforts should be made to harmonize the new technologies with the socio-technical requirements of the organization. Health Care Information System Essay
In conclusion the evolution in HMIS has been instrumental to providing solution to patient’s and practitioner’s problems relating to information management. The use of EMR/EHR technologies has been instrumental in transforming the healthcare sector. Management of health require constant monitoring of people’s health status, service provision with regards to utility and coverage, equipment availability and their viability, drug consumption and stocking patterns, personnel status and availability, and adequate financing. To achieve the above it is necessary to have an accurate and timely information management system in place within healthcare facilities. The failures and inefficiencies in healthcare provision are easily identified when the administration have access to the up to date, relevant, and accurate information. They will thus respond quickly and take the necessary actions to ensure that the healthcare service delivery is improved.
Benhamou, P. Y. (2011). Improving diabetes management with electronic health records and patients’ health records. Diabetes & Metabolism, 37 Suppl 4, S53‐6. doi:10.1016/S1262‐3636(11)70966‐1
Fuji, K. T., Galt, K. A., & Serocca, A. B. (2008). Personal health record use by patients as perceived by ambulatory care physicians in Nebraska and South Dakota: A cross-sectional study. Perspectives in Health Information Management, 5, 15.
Gallegos, A., (2013). Is your EHR ready for the ADA? American Medical News, 56(7), 10-11.
Ludwick D.A., and Doucette J., (2009).Adopting electronic medical records in primary care: Lessons learned from health information systems implementation experience in seven countries. International Journal of Medical Informatics 7 8 ( 2 0 0 9 ) 22–31
McInnes, D.K., Saltman, D.C., & Kidd MR. (2006). General practitioners’ use of computers for prescribing and electronic health records: results from a national survey, Medical Journal of Australia 185 (2) (2006) 88–91. Health Care Information System Essay
This paper explains the following Health Care Information System terms and how they are used in health care: Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), Electronic medical record (EMR), Electronic health record (HER), Personal health record (PHR), Computerized provider order entry system (CPOES), Unique patient identifier (UPI), Protected health information (PHI), Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), Covered entities, Health information exchange (HIE).
Key words: Health Care Information System.
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) protects patient health information from unauthorized use and ensures patient privacy. HIPAA guarantees that all information that is discussed or written in a medical facility is protected for the patient, and all employees must follow rules and instructions by HIPAA regulations (in order to avoid legal regulations and fines).
Electronic medical record (EMR) defined as “electronic medical information about individuals that are held within one health care organization, which can be gathered, managed or consulted by health care professionals” (Wager, Lee, Glaser, 2009). EMR systems are mostly used by providers for diagnosis, treatment, tests, and medications.
Electronic health record (EHR) is “a digital version of individual’s paper chart”, which contains the medical and treatment histories, diagnosis, medications, laboratory and test results of the patients that makes information available instantly and securely to authorized users. EHR is used to share information with other health care organizations (specialists, laboratories, emergency facilities, pharmacies, and medical facilities).
Personal health record (PHR) makes it available to manage and gather individual’s medical information in accessible to anytime and secure location, in other words, it is a collection of information about individual’s health. PHR includes doctor’s name, medications, allergies, chronic health problems, and family history. PHRs allow their patients to access and print their records at any time. Health Care Information System Essay
Computerized provider order entry system (CPOES) is an application that allows health care providers to enter medical orders electronically excluding traditional methods (telephone, fax, papers). CPOES is used to directly enter medical orders (as well as laboratory, admission and procedure orders) through a computer application, to improve medication safety and quality of health care. Unique patient identifier (UPI) contains information which identifies the patient and includes a set of individual characters by which that person can be recognized. This system uses data such as an individual’s birth date and security number to create a unique code instead of a name. UPI is used to easily identify individuals, facilitate accurate and comprehensive care, and guarantee the privacy, security and safety of patient information.
Protected health information (PHI) generally refers to medical history, laboratory results, test results, insurance information, and other information that healthcare professional gather to identify a patient and determine effective care. PHI is used to provide professional healthcare service, diagnosis and treatment.
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) is an agency within the US Department of Health & Human Services responsible for administration of Medicare program, Medicaid, the State Children’s Health Insurance Program (SCHIP), and health insurance portability standards. CMS is used to provide administrative simplification standards from the HIPAA, quality standards in long-term care facilities through certification process, clinical laboratory standards, etc.
Covered entities are defined as health plans, health care clearing houses, and health care providers who electronically transmit health information in connection with transactions concerning billing and payment for services or insurance coverage (HIPAA). Covered entities are used to handle protected health information. Health Care Information System Essay
Health information exchange (HIE) allows medical staff and health care providers to access and share an individual’s medical information electronically. HIE is used to facilitate access to, and retrieval of, clinical data to provide safe, timely, efficient, effective, equitable and patient-centered care (Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society, 2016).