HCA 545 Module 3 DQ 1 and 2

Refer to “Terrorism Preparedness” in your assigned readings. According to the article, identify what local, county, and state assets you feel need to be in place as an answer to counterterrorism preparedness and why.

HCA 545 Module 3 DQ 1 and 2

Refer to “Impact of Small Nuclear Weapons on Washington, DC: Outcomes and Emergency Response Recommendation” in your assigned readings. Choose three issues that are considered critical according to the report and analyze how your community measures up, especially in the realm of health care response preparedness.

HCA 545 Module 3 DQ 2

Re: Module 3 DQ 2

Three areas that could pose a problem for Florida if a nuclear blast were to occur. HCA 545: Terrorism Preparedness Essay Paper

  1. Utilization of casualty estimates in nuclear emergency response. According to the Florida Board of Health, Florida currently has 10 level one trauma centers, 23 level two trauma centers, and four pediatric trauma centers, and four burn centers (floridahealth.gov, 2018). According to this week’s reading on “National terrorism” Florida falls short of the size of facilities needed per capita of 500 bed hospitals per one million in population. It is also cited that the majority of injuries that will be suffered in a blast zone will be burns from the nuclear blast ( Dallas & Bell, 2007). We currently have only four burns centers in Florida (floridahealth.gov, 2018). Another problem is that certain areas will experience casualties from prompt and fallout radiation. This can be exacerbated by winds, as winds will carry fallout down wind. We are a peninsula that is surrounded by water with winds coming across our state from the east and west coasts. Fallout will be a large problem for medical personnel to deal with (Dallas & Bell, 2007). Florida, especially certain times of the year will experience fluctuations in atmospheric stability, which can affect the behavior of the mushroom plume, and the thickness, amount and height of the fallout clouds. HCA 545: Terrorism Preparedness Essay Paper
  2. Protection offered by buildings and vehicles. Depending on the type of construction, a building can offer 10-80% protection. Another thing to consider is the building in an urban or rural area? Depending on where a blast occurred, some may be able to withstand a blast if they are far enough away, as many homes are concrete construction, having concrete tile roofs, and the ability to install hurricane shutters over doors and windows. This can possibly protect against initial injury or death from a blast but eventual sickness that can occur from fallout will be problematic. It is noted that vehicles offer no protection from a nuclear blast. It would be better to stay at home or to seek shelter in a large building that possibly has a basement and is made of concrete or stone. Depending on the type of construction, a building can offer 10-80% protection. Another thing to consider is the building in an urban or rural area? (Dallas & Bell, 2007). We have many buildings that are built to withstand hurricanes’ but I am not sure how they would withstand a nuclear blast as may have windows on all sides to provide a view of the cities, waterways and the coast. Smaller buildings such as hospitals, warehouses and schools may fare better. HCA 545: Terrorism Preparedness Essay Paper
  3. Thermal effects-fires and burns. Florida has a high density of foliage and undergrowth of dried grass and plant life. We, like other arid states, are prone to fires. According to the reading the absorption of thermal energy can cause fires in the vicinity of the blast and burns to individuals in the area. Fires will occur in buildings with blown out windows and in areas where foliage is dense. Burn damage can range from first degree burns (bad sunburn) to second degree (blisters and leads to infection and scarring) and third degree (destroys skin and underlying tissue). Burns alone can cause a problem nationwide as we only have the capacity nationwide to handle 1500 burn patients with all of our burn centers (Dallas & Bell, 2007). Florida only has four centers so we would not be able to handle the medical needs of the potential burn patients. HCA 545: Terrorism Preparedness Essay Paper


Dallas & Bell, (2017). Impact of small nuclear weapons on Washington, DC: Outcomes and emergency response recommendations. Retrieved from https://www.hsgac.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/041508Dallas.pdf?attempt=2.

Florida Trauma Centers, (2018). Retrieved from http://www.floridahealth.gov/licensing-and-regulation/trauma-system/_documents/traumacenterlisting2018.pdf.

Good morning Chairman Horn, Members of the Subcommittee and distinguished Members of the Tennessee Delegation. I value the opportunity to appear before you and discuss terrorism preparedness, including threats posed by attacks involving biological, chemical or nuclear agents, as well as measures being taken by the FBI and our law enforcement partners to address these threats.HCA 545: Terrorism Preparedness Essay Paper


The mission of the FBI’s counterterrorism program is to detect, deter, prevent, and swiftly respond to terrorist actions that threaten the U.S. national interests at home or abroad, and to coordinate those efforts with local, state, federal, and foreign entities as appropriate. The counterterrorism responsibilities of the FBI include the investigation of domestic and international terrorism. As events during the past several years demonstrate, both domestic and international terrorist organizations represent threats within the borders of the US

Domestic terrorism is the unlawful use, or threatened use, of violence by a group or individual based and operating entirely within the US (or its territories) without foreign direction, committed against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives.HCA 545: Terrorism Preparedness Essay Paper

International terrorism involves violent acts or acts dangerous to human life that are a violation of the criminal laws of the US or any state, or that would be a criminal violation if committed within the jurisdiction of the US or any state. Acts of international terrorism are intended to intimidate or coerce a civilian population, influence the policy of a government, or affect the conduct of a government. These acts transcend national boundaries in terms of the means by which they are accomplished, the persons they are intended to intimidate, or the locale in which perpetrators operate.

The FBI has developed a strong response to the threats posed by domestic and international terrorism. Between fiscal years 1993 and 2003, the number of special agents dedicated to the FBI’s counterterrorism programs grew by approximately 224 percent (to 1,669–nearly 16 percent of all FBI special agents). In recent years, the FBI has strengthened its counterterrorism program to enhance its abilities to carry out these objectives.

The Memphis Division of the FBI

The Memphis Division of the FBI is comprised of the Western and Middle Federal Judicial Districts within the state of Tennessee. The Division has investigative responsibilities in 54 counties with an approximate population of 3.2 million. The headquarters office for the Division is located in Memphis with satellite offices, or Resident Agencies (RAs), in Jackson, Nashville, Clarksville, Columbia, and Cookeville. The Division personnel resource staffing level for Special Agents is approximately 84 and the professional support complement is approximately 61. HCA 545: Terrorism Preparedness Essay Paper

FBI Special Agents assigned to counterterrorism matters in the Memphis Division meet with their federal, state and local counterparts in designated alternating locations on a regular basis for training, discussion of investigations, and to share intelligence. This provides a necessary structure to direct counterterrorism resources toward localized terrorism problems. Domestic terrorism training has been provided by the FBI at numerous agencies within the Memphis Division including the Nashville Metropolitan Police Department and the Tennessee Highway Patrol. The FBI recently assisted the US Attorney’s Office in “State and Local Anti-Terrorism Training ” funded by the Department of Justice (DOJ). HCA 545: Terrorism Preparedness Essay Paper

Approximately two and one half years ago the Memphis Division initiated working groups in Memphis and Nashville comprised of various federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies. The primary purpose was to prevent, detect, investigate, and prosecute individuals and organizations planning and/or committing terrorist acts. Since September 11, 2001, training by several agencies has been provided on a monthly basis at the working group meetings in Nashville.

The establishment of those working groups required extensive background investigations on the agents/officers of such agencies as the Tennessee Bureau of Investigation, Tennessee Highway Patrol, Memphis Police Department, Shelby County Sheriff’s Office, and the Nashville Metropolitan Police Department. Those members of the working groups received Top Secret clearances in order to share classified intelligence and conduct joint classified investigations. Other federal agencies such as the Federal Aviation Administration, the Immigration and Naturalization Service, the Internal Revenue Service, the US Customs Service, the US Secret Service, and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms ensured their clearances were updated and forwarded to the FBI. HCA 545: Terrorism Preparedness Essay Paper

Without delving into the specifics of current international terrorism cases, international threats to the US generally consist of state sponsors of international terrorism, formalized terrorist organizations, and the radical international jihad movement. Each of these categories represents a threat to US interests abroad and in the United States. With the Top Secret security clearances, the local, state, and federal agents/officers on the working groups are able to assist the FBI in international terrorism investigations. Since September 11, 2001, the Memphis Division has made personnel changes to address international terrorism. Through utilization of the individual working groups, the Division has been able to initiate more cases and gather additional intelligence. The Al Qaeda organization is the primary terrorist threat to which investigative efforts are directed. In conjunction with Treasury Department agencies, efforts are being made to track funding sources in the Memphis Division who may support terrorist cells in the US and overseas. HCA 545: Terrorism Preparedness Essay Paper