ENG 111 – Outline for Research Paper

August 26, 2022
Presentation: Health Care Payment System
August 26, 2022

ENG 111 – Outline for Research Paper

ENG 111 – Outline for Research Paper


Before we get started with the outline, take a moment to look at the official instructions for your Research Paper.


Think of your Research Paper as being divided into four main sections (not paragraphs), each with specific goals to accomplish. Use this broad outline handout to help you organize your ideas and describe how you will accomplish the goals of each section.


I. Introduction


Your introduction has three tasks:1.) Introduce the broad topic of your essay, 2.) Provide a BRIEF description of the specific problem you are presenting, and 3.) Make a claim about the solution you want to argue for. Your introduction should be ONE PARAGRAPH.


1. How do you plan to introduce the broad topic? You’re trying to get your audience’s attention here.


Most Americans are ignorant and unaware about HIV/AIDS and the determining factors behind its transmission, contraction, and disease process. It is likely, for example, that the average American does not know that the acronym HIV/AIDS stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Auto ImmunoDeficiency Syndrome. While most American citizens may be completely unaware about the AIDS virus, its signs and symptoms, and methods of prevention, sex education begins at a very early age for South African citizens. For people living in South Africa, AIDS awareness begins in elementary school, in the first and second grade. Young children are taught about prevention, transmission, signs & symptoms as well as treatment and medications that are available to those who are HIV+.








2. What is the specific problem you are presenting? Remember to identify the community you are focusing on.


High rates of HIV/AIDS among women and youth in South Africa









3. What solution do you think your audience should adopt? This will become your thesis statement.


Despite education initiatives and high awareness about the risks associated with this illness, infection rates remain high in South Africa, why? This essay seeks to explore the economic, political, and cultural reasons behind why infection rates remain high among women and youth in South Africa. Additionally, this essay will present preventive measures and possible solutions.














II. Body Section 1


Your goal here is to convince your audience that they should care about this problem. Use research to help you prove that there’s a problem to be solved. Answer the following questions in this section: What causes this problem and what is its history? Who is affected by the problem? How are people affected by the problem? How severe is the problem? How much does it cost society? This section will be SEVERAL PARAGRAPHS long.


As you answer these questions, tell me what evidence you’ve found and what sources you will use to support your claims.




1. What causes this problem? What is it’s history?

Political, cultural factors, gender based violence, abstinence-based sex education,






2. Who is affected by the problem?


This problem affects predominantly women and youth in South Africa.






3. How are people affected by the problem?


High HIV infection rates among women and youth in South Africa result in stigma, illness, and death for the affected population.






4. How severe is the problem?


This issue is severe as it results in illness and premature death for many women and youth across South Africa.






5. How much does the problem cost society?


Losses in families and communities, losses in the workforce as well as losses in economic and societal development.



III. Body Section II


Now that you have convinced your audience that the problem is real and that they should be concerned about it, your goal is to convince them that your solution will help solve the problem. Present your solution to the problem here. Make sure you clearly indicate how this solution solves the problem. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of your solution. Try to anticipate any objections to your solution, and answer those objections (rebut the criticism) in this section.


As you answer these questions, tell me what evidence you’ve found and what sources you will use to support your claims.


1. Introduce and describe the solution.


Prevention and reduction of HIV can be achieved by addressing economic, political, and gender-based factors. Additionally, it is important to introduce and emphasize protection-based sex educaton. Free access to protection such as condoms is also critical to prevention and infection rate reduction.







2. How does the solution address the causes of the problem?


The problem is caused by economic and political factors as stigma, silence, and cultural causes. The introduction of protection-based sex education programs as well as targeted redress for the economic, political, and gender-based factors would be a multi-faceted and well-rounded solution to the problem.






3. What are the advantages of this solution over other solutions that have been tried or proposed?


This solution is multi-faceted and attacks the problem from many different angles. While singularly targeted solutions such as educational initiatives may be easy to implement, a multifaceted solution is needed to address all the different causes of this problem




4. What are some disadvantages or unintended side effects of this solution?


The greatest disadvantage for this solution is that it requires buy-in and collaboration from the government, non-governmental institutions, and the public. This solution has a high time, effort, and monetary investment threshold. All stakeholders must work together to address the political and socio-economic factors driving high rates of infection among women and youth in South Africa.









5. Introduce one or more objections to this solution that you have found


When it comes to introducing protection-based sex education, one potential objection to this solution might be that giving people access to condoms and prEP might be encouraging reckless, hypersexual behavior which may lead to higher levels of infection in the long run





6. How do you plan to rebut this criticism?


The research shows that protection-based sex education is the most effective way to prevent the spread of HIV and other STIs. Abstinence-based sex education yields worse outcomes when compared to protection-based sex education methods.






IV. Conclusion


Now that your audience is concerned about that problem and has adopted the solution, call them to take action in your concluding paragraph. Reiterate how your solution will help solve the problem. Consider using strong emotional appeals here by helping your audience visualize the world once the problem has been solved and/or describe what the audience can do to help enact your solution.


What are your ideas for a concluding paragraph?


The concluding paragraph reiterates the main points of the essay, higher rates of infection among women and youth in South Africa are driven by:

1. Stigma and lack of adequate protection-based sex education

2. Cultural factors and practices

3. Gender-based violence

4. Economic factors

The solution is to address each of these contributing factors in a multifaceted approach. Challenges may arise in the political process but continued activism and advocacy through social media and on-the-ground will yield long-term and lasting changes.