Discussion: Implementing IS Poorly
Discussion: Implementing IS Poorly
Risks As demonstrated throughout this chapter, information resources may be used to gain strategic advantage even if that advantage is fleeting. When information systems are chosen as the tool to outpace a firm’s competitors, executives should be aware of the many risks that may surface. Some of these risks include the following:
• Awakening a sleeping giant: A firm can implement IS to gain competitive advantage only to find that it nudged a larger competitor with deeper pockets into implementing an IS with even better features. FedEx offered its customers the ability to trace the transit and delivery of their packages online. FedEx’s much larger competitor, UPS, rose to the challenge. UPS not only implemented the same services but also added a new set of features eroding some of the advantages FedEx enjoyed, causing FedEx to update its offerings. Both the UPS and FedEx sites passed through multiple Web site iterations as the dueling delivery companies continue to struggle for competitive advantage.
• Demonstrating bad timing: Sometimes customers are not ready to use the technology designed to gain strategic advantage. For example, Grid Systems created the GRiDPAD in 1989. It was a tablet computer designed for businesses to use in the field and was well reviewed at that time. But it didn’t get traction. Three decades later, in 2010, Apple introduced the iPad, and tablet computing took off.
• Implementing IS poorly: Stories abound of information systems that fail because they are poorly imple- mented. Typically, these systems are complex and often global in their reach. An implementation fiasco took place at Hershey Foods when it attempted to implement its supply and inventory system. Hershey devel- opers brought the complex system up too quickly and then failed to test it adequately. Related systems prob- lems crippled shipments during the critical Halloween shopping season, resulting in large declines in sales and net income. More recently, in 2012, more than 100,000 Austin Energy customers received incorrect util- ity bills due to problems with the company’s vendor‐supplied bill collection system. Some customers went months without a bill, and others were incorrectly billed. Some businesses that owed $3,000 were billed $300,000. Still others tried to pay their bill online only to be told that the payment had not recorded when it had been. The utility calculated that the problems cost it more than $8 million.15
You must proofread your paper. But do not strictly rely on your computer’s spell-checker and grammar-checker; failure to do so indicates a lack of effort on your part and you can expect your grade to suffer accordingly. Papers with numerous misspelled words and grammatical mistakes will be penalized. Read over your paper – in silence and then aloud – before handing it in and make corrections as necessary. Often it is advantageous to have a friend proofread your paper for obvious errors. Handwritten corrections are preferable to uncorrected mistakes.
Use a standard 10 to 12 point (10 to 12 characters per inch) typeface. Smaller or compressed type and papers with small margins or single-spacing are hard to read. It is better to let your essay run over the recommended number of pages than to try to compress it into fewer pages.
Likewise, large type, large margins, large indentations, triple-spacing, increased leading (space between lines), increased kerning (space between letters), and any other such attempts at “padding” to increase the length of a paper are unacceptable, wasteful of trees, and will not fool your professor.
The paper must be neatly formatted, double-spaced with a one-inch margin on the top, bottom, and sides of each page. When submitting hard copy, be sure to use white paper and print out using dark ink. If it is hard to read your essay, it will also be hard to follow your argument.