Discuss diagnosis and treatment of Sexually transmitted diseases.

Describe the differences during the rectal examination of acute prostatitis and benign prostatic hypertrophy.
September 29, 2021
Explain how the process of diffusion facilitates moving evidence into nursing practice
September 29, 2021

Discuss diagnosis and treatment of Sexually transmitted diseases.

Discuss diagnosis and treatment of Sexually transmitted diseases.


Sexually transmitted diseases

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infections that are passed from one

person to another through sexual contact. The causes of STDs are bacteria, parasites,

yeast, and viruses. STDs are an important global health priority because of their

devastating impact on women and infants and their inter-relationships with HIV/AIDS.

Each year, there are an estimated 357 million new infections with 1 of 4 STIs:

chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and trichomoniasis. More than 500 million people are

estimated to have genital infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV). More than 290

million women have a human papillomavirus (HPV) infection (Norman, 2019).

Miami-Dade in the 2018 with a population of more than two million, the county

recorded 445 cases of chlamydia per 100,000 people, which is much higher than the

best indicators in this topic in the country with 145.1 cases for 100,000 people

(Rankings, n.d).

Chlamydia trachomatis has been called the “silent epidemic” of reproductive age

women and is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection in the United

States (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Sexually transmitted diseases

treatment guidelines, 2002). The majority of chlamydial infections in women are

asymptomatic and, untreated may cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and its

sequelae: ectopic pregnancy, infertility, and chronic pelvic pain (Stamm,1999).

Positive behavior changes are plausible with STI prevention messages and

services for at-risk women by means of nurse-directed interventions with the intention of

enhancing perceived risk as well as increasing knowledge of STIs in women.

Sexually transmitted disease screening activities in nonclinical settings remain a

core activity of many domestic STD prevention and control programs. These targeted

screenings have been seen as effective ways to find otherwise unrecognized or

undiagnosed disease in a community and, through resultant case and partner

treatment, provide opportunities to prevent further transmission (Centers for Disease

Control, 1981).

As a Nurse practitioner we can implement interventions to improve screening and

rescreening to reduce STD prevalence, reduce long-term sequelae, and meet federal

requirements to demonstrate improvement in health outcomes. Opportunities to

leverage expanding insurance coverage of persons for preventive services can further

maximize public health resources for STD screening. Successful interventions require

investing financial and staff resources and overcoming barriers at the system, provider,

and patient levels.


Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Syphilis trends in the United States. MMWR Morb

Mortal Wkly Rep 1981; 30: 441–444, 449.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Sexually transmitted diseases treatment

guidelines 2002. MMWR. 2002;51:1–80.

Norman, B. (2019, January 30). Sheriff Tony Bringing in Former Coral Springs Cop

Sean Zukowsky As Undersheriff. Retrieved from



Rankings. (n.d.). Retrieved from



Ana Barreras Lopez

9/27/21, 7:36 PM


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Specific Health Concern in Miami Dade County

Miami Dade county is one of the healthiest counties in Florida if we are talking about health outcomes. But if we start to analyze in details the health factors, we will find some aspects that needs to improve. One of these factors is Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD), the statics show an increase of the incidence mimic the national and state trends (How Healthy Is Your County? | County Health Rankings, 2021). The Florida Department of Health in Miami-Dade County (FDOH-Miami) has implemented some programs aimed at unifying efforts to screen, test, diagnostic, treatment, counseling, and health education of those diseases at no or lower cost. Also, the STD surveillance initiative required by law that all health institutions must report all positive STDs to the FDOH-Miami on the first 24 hours of confirmation by laboratory test. In addition, there are trained personnel who come to the community to provide these important services confidentially (Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) | Florida Department of Health in Miami-Dade, 2021).

Community Health

Community Health Services are essential as the first line of combat against this type of communicable diseases. Having trained professionals who can do fieldwork within different populations can make all the difference (Shu-yi, 2018). FDOH-Miami embraces initiatives that provides community clinics with the necessary resources in order to face this problem. These programs include linking community clinics with field staff, close communication with county schools processing cases referred by teachers or nurses, and services to the partners of affected patients (Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) | Florida Department of Health in Miami-Dade, 2021).

Nurse Practitioner Role

Nurse Practitioners (NP) are training and have the skills and knowledge for play an important role on a health system reform. They can become the voice of the community but some attributes are needed such as: perseverance, communication, knowledge on public policy, risk-taking, organization, among others (O’Rourke & Smith Higuchi, 2016). As NP we are independent practitioners capable of analyze every situation and give the proper solution with a holistic point

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of view. Working close with local, county and state resources and leaders is the best way to promote innovation and change.


How Healthy is your County? | County Health Rankings. (2021). County Health Rankings & Roadmaps. https://www.countyhealthrankings.org/

Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) | Florida Department of Health in Miami-Dade. (2021). Miamidade.Floridahealth.Gov. http://miamidade.floridahealth.gov/programs-and-services/infectious-disease-services/std/index.html

Shu-yi, S. (2018). Experimental Effect Observation on Intensive Community STD Intervention. International Journal of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Education and Behavioural Science, 4(1), 20. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijhpebs.20180401.14

O’Rourke, T., & Smith Higuchi, K. (2016). Activities and Attributes of Nurse Practitioner Leaders: Lessons from a Primary Care System Change. Canadian Journal of Nursing Leadership, 29(3), 46–60. https://doi.org/10.12927/cjnl.2016.24892


Health Ranking – Broward, Florida

The county of the State of Florida that I selected for examination is Broward. The specific health concern that I opted for in the given county is drug overdose deaths. The general statistics on the website called Country Health Rankings states that the number of people who died because of a drug overdose in Broward is 1, 506 per 100,000 population. (“Drug overdose deaths”, 2021). In fact, Broward is the county with the highest number of people dying due to drug overdose in the state of Florida. This means other counties in the given state show a significantly lower percentage of deaths because of this health problem.

Community Health Center Program to avoid drug overdose death

Without a doubt, drug overdose is a serious problem not only in Broward but also in the whole United States of America. As the Washington Post points out the number of addicts increases each year (Bernstein, & Diamond, 2021). That is why such a health concern requires effective action from authorities and health care professionals. In my point of view, there should be a specific community health center program created to help to address this public health problem. To be precise, the local government should impose severe laws on those people who use illegal drugs. This way, people would be afraid to sell or possess such drugs because they will realize the outcomes such activities might have on their future. In addition, there would be significantly fewer people who use and thus die from drugs.

Nurse Practitioner Role to Help People of Community

As a nurse practitioner, I would inform my patients about the negative effects of using drugs on their health. For example, drugs might lead to a deliberate suicide attempt (“How Does a Drug Overdose Kill You?”, 2020). This way I believe people would be more cautious about drugs. In addition, I would try to vote for a ban on drugs that are sold to people without a prescription. This way, people will be unable to purchase drugs for non-medical reasons.


Bernstein, L., & Diamond, D. (2021, July 19). How can the U.S. reduce drug overdose deaths? A wide range of ideas awaits Biden. Retrieved September 21, 2021, from https://www.washingtonpost.com/health/biden-opioid-overdose-deaths/2021/07/17/0af03c3e-e63e-11eb-8aa5-5662858b696e_story.html

Drug overdose deaths. (2021). Retrieved September 21, 2021, from https://www.countyhealthrankings.org/app/florida/2021/measure/factors/138/data

How Does a Drug Overdose Kill You? (2020, August 28). Retrieved September 21, 2021, from https://www.bluecrestrc.com/how-do-overdoses-kill/

Henly Rojas

I can start by commenting that the aspects in the behavior of the population of our state, Florida, have always been indicated as one of the main risk elements for several diseases that are taken in the community environment and linked very strongly to the style people’s lives. The statistics that have been carried out each year, including 2021, have focused on having the knowledge of what measures must be taken to eliminate or stop as much as possible the consequent negative effects of the daily way of life of our inhabitants. According to statistics, 15% of the population of legal age smokes cigarettes or products derived from smoking in a chronic way. On the other hand, 32% of the people participating in the statistics are obese and another percentage does not exercise or do any physical activity. Likewise, about 90% of those surveyed stated that they have no possibility of carrying out any type of exercise. Another point to take is that about 22% of these people consume high amounts of alcohol.

Benefits of a Community Health Center

The Florida community, especially in our county (Dade County), must be aware of the good and / or positive things that come with having healthy lifestyles. Our population should be educated about the negative health effects that tobacco and alcohol consumption bring, as well as the positive impact that daily exercise brings. All this education is the first step to prevent a high percentage of diseases, bringing with it a decrease in hospital admissions and consequently a decrease in deaths.

Role of a Nurse Practitioner in Policy Innovation

As a Nurse Practitioner I must play a very important role in the health of our population, because through my role I must intercede to renew and propose new elements in the apparatus and mechanism of public health in our state. Through my practice and my clinical experience, I will be able to have a wide knowledge about what I can do to improve the policies implemented by our state in ​​public health.


Lopez, A. (2021). Improving Community Health by Offering Decent Work: Community Benefits and Corporate Responsibility (Doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at Chicago).

Anthony, C. (2020). Ensuring America’s health: The public creation of the corporate health care system. NY: Cambridge University Press.

Park, J., Regenstein, M., Chong, N., & Onyilofor, C. L. (2021). The use of community health workers in community health centers. Medical Care, 59(Suppl 5), S457-S462. https://doi.org/10.1097/MLR.0000000000001607

Adelisa Bencomo

9/27/21, 1:55 AM


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The behavioral mannerisms of the residents of Florida have been flagged as among the major risk factors to an assortment of community-acquired and lifestyle dependent diseases; According to the 2021 State-Level Data and Ranks, these statistics have been outlined to know what measures need to be taken to curb more harm from the way carry their daily indulgences. 15% of the population is adults who indulge in chronic smoking, while 32% suffer from obesity. Moreover, 26% of the population above 20 has been reported to have no physical activity. In comparison, 89% of the residents in this state complain of having no access to exercise opportunities. Additionally, 20% of adults have been reporting to partake in binge eating and excessive drinking.

Benefits of a Community Health Center

The community needs to be sensitized to the benefits of partaking in healthy lifestyles. Education on the health impacts of smoking, excessive alcohol drinking, and the significance of exercise becomes the primary step towards curbing many diseases, culminating in the reduction of hospital admission for the same and a minimization of deaths resulting from resultant health complications (Lopez, 2021).

Role of a Nurse Practitioner in Policy Innovation

A nurse practitioner, such as an RN, has been mandated to use their vintage position to advocate and suggest best health care providence methodologies. This is because their daily involvement with an assortment of clinical cases gives them the experience of knowing what public policies can be beneficial in the ultimate advancement and delivery of effective health care programs (Feyereisen & Goodrick, 2021).


Lopez, A. (2021). Improving Community Health by Offering Decent Work: Community Benefits and Corporate Responsibility (Doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at Chicago).

Feyereisen, S., & Goodrick, E. (2021). Examining variable nurse practitioner independence across jurisdictions: a case study of the United States. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 118, 103633.

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Joyce Rivera

General statistic related to a HIV prevalence in Miami Dade

Regardless of the health problem to be treated, it should be noted that Miami-Dade is among the healthiest counties in the state of Florida, Highest 75% -100% (County Health Ranking & Roadmaps, 2021).

This statistic is based on the number of individuals 13 years of age or older living with a diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus infection per 100,000 inhabitants. The data used for this measure in the 2021 county health rankings is from 2018 (cited in County Health Ranking & Roadmaps, 2021). HIV is included as it is a marker of high-risk health behaviors, this includes intravenous drug use and sex without a condom. This type of statistic helps communities understand the high cost that this disease has in the health care system, HIV treatment often exceeds the cost of similar chronic conditions (as cited in County Health Ranking & Roadmaps, 2021).

In Miami Dade the numbers of cases compared to other county are high, in fact it is the one with the most cases: 26,316 cases.

Community health Center Program

Community Health Centers are an access point to primary health care for approximately more than 27 million people in more than 10,000 rural and urban communities across the country (cited in Mason, Gardner, Hopkins & O’Grady, 2016). This type of center offers primary and preventive health care and other health services that are not usually offered in the clinical care setting.

Community health centers help treat the prevalence of HIV in the county, with programs aimed at preventing the disease, with early detection of cases to prevent the spread. These community health centers can reach more people, including low-income, rural, marginalized, and undocumented people.

Influence as an advanced practical nurse to assist in policy innovation to address community HIV prevalence

As an advanced professional nurse or nurse leader, you would be involved in creating policies or reinforcing existing ones. I ran community clinics several times a year where I would test community residents for HIV for cases of HIV infection. I would conduct educational talks in community health centers and schools to guide the population from early adolescence on the importance of practicing safe sex and avoiding promiscuity. I would teach them the correct use of the condom, through brochures. It would educate them about IV drug use, the risk of sharing needles, and what goes with it. I would look for a way that the community can have free access to it, since the costs of the disease are higher than providing free condoms to the population. The policy it would employ would be aimed at education and disease prevention to reduce the number of cases as much as possible.


County Health Ranking & Roadmaps. 2021. Florida: Miami-Dade. Retrieved from https://www.countyhealthrankings.org/app/florida/2021/rankings/es/miami-dade/county/outcomes/overall/snapshot

Mason, D.J., Gardner, D. B., Hopkins Outlaw, F., & O’Grady, E.T. (Eds.). (2016). Policy and Politics: In Nursing and Health Care. (7th ed.). St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier.