Describe the role of the governing body at the top of a health care organization.
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Course Learning Outcomes for Unit III Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:
2. Analyze the structure of governing boards for health care organizations. 2.1 Describe the role of the governing body at the top of a health care organization. 2.2 Explain the five stages of group development in health care organizations.
Course/Unit Learning Outcomes
2.1 Unit Lesson Chapter 5 Unit III Assessment
Unit Lesson Chapter 6 Article: “Teamwork in Health Care: Maximizing Collective Intelligence Via
Inclusive Collaboration and Open Communication” Video: TeamSTEPPS: SBAR in Inpatient Medical Teams Unit III Assessment
Required Unit Resources Chapter 5: Organizing: Organizations Chapter 6: Organizing: Groups and Teams In order to access the following resources, click the links below. AHRQ Patient Safety. (2015, April 29). TeamSTEPPS: SBAR in inpatient medical teams [Video]. YouTube.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nbJPAumzJrc Transcript for TeamSTEPPS: SBAR in Inpatient Medical Teams video Mayo, A. T., & Woolley, A. W. (2016, September). Teamwork in health care: Maximizing collective intelligence
via inclusive collaboration and open communication. American Medical Association Journal of Ethics, 18(9), 933–940. https://journalofethics.ama-assn.org/article/teamwork-health-care-maximizing- collective-intelligence-inclusive-collaboration-and-open/2016-09
TeamSTEPPS® for Health Care Anyone entering health care leadership at this point in the evolution of our art and science needs to understand TeamSTEPPS (Team Strategies & Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety) for health care. This process should be part of the orientation and training for any new board of directors member, any new member of the facility’s management team, and all hospital employees. It takes engagement from all levels of the organization to make TeamSTEPPS work. There was a time when health care organizations were primarily managed from the top down with decisions made by the governing board and chief executive officer (CEO), but increasingly it has become apparent that the most successful medical facilities utilize a TeamSTEPPS approach. The governing board has great
UNIT III STUDY GUIDE
Organizations, Groups, and Teams
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experience in leadership and business, but they cannot be expected to have knowledge of all areas of a medical facility. They need input for successful strategic planning and decision-making. We will discuss the key principles here, but first, you need to know that TeamSTEPPS did not originate in health care at all. It originated in aviation! What does aviation and health care have in common? Well, they are both professional environments in which human error can have permanent and devastating impacts on those receiving the service. They are also both in environments where quick and effective action can prevent those devastating impacts. Aviation and health care do have one important thing in common, saving lives (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality [AHRQ], 2014). TeamSTEPPS began with David Beaty, a British Royal Airforce pilot who wrote about ways to reduce aircraft
incidents (Beaty, 1969). It turns out that the concepts he presented have applied very well to health care over the years since he wrote them. Let us consider those key concepts (AHRQ, 2014).
The Structure of Teams Aviation organizations and health care organizations both need to identify the components of a multi-team system. The human beings involved must work together effectively to ensure the safety of those in their care (AHRQ, 2014).
Solid and Accurate Communication Aviation and health care both need structured processes by which information is clearly and concisely conveyed from team member to team member. In both professions, miscommunication could result in serious injury and truly could cost lives.
Strong Leadership Both professions rely on strong leadership, seen in the ability to optimize the roles of team members by ensuring that actions are fully and consistently understood. The key here is that changes which take place during a process are shared with all team members and that team members have the necessary resources to perform their duties.
Continuous Monitoring Successful aviation and health care organizations perform continuous monitoring of what is happening in their environment. They scan and assess situational elements, gaining understanding and maintaining awareness of team functions, of team strengths and deficits.
Mutual Support Among Team Members Perhaps most importantly, team members in both fields anticipate and support each other’s needs. They get to know each other’s moves and responses. Team members know their own roles very well, but they also know the roles of their colleagues. Your next step in understanding TeamSTEPPS is SBAR. Yes, lots of acronyms in this area of health care. Let us explain SBAR, a crucial way of looking at any health care scenario. SBAR stands for situation, background, assessment, and recommendation (AHRQ, 2014).
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SBAR Process (AHRQ, 2014)
TeamSTEPPS is so important in health care today, let’s take a look at how TeamSTEPPS works in the care of an inpatient, TeamSTEPPS: SBAR in Inpatient Medical Teams video. Closed-captioning is available once you access the video. Transcript for TeamSTEPPS: SBAR in Inpatient Medical Teams video SBAR helps us to understand what any organization must do to protect the safety of customers, and yes, patients are customers. Let’s make SBAR real with an example. A member of our environmental services staff talks with a patient while cleaning the room. The patient seems well and in good spirits. Suddenly, the patient says, “I can’t breathe, help me, something is wrong.” The housekeeper realizes that something is seriously wrong because of the sudden change in the patient’s condition. She pushes the emergency call button in the room, and within 1 minute, a registered nurse (RN) arrives at the room. Because the nurse received a very thorough report on the patient this morning, she knows that the patient underwent surgical repair for a fractured femur 4 days ago. The patient has been stuck in bed since that time. That extent of immobility makes the nurse think of a pulmonary embolism as the cause of the sudden change, a blot clot to the lung. The RN uses the mobile overhead pager attached to her scrub shirt and calls for a rapid response team to assist. First to arrive from the rapid response team is a respiratory therapist, who has extensive experience with such situations. He assesses the patient quickly and recommends administration of heparin, clot buster medications, and 100% oxygen. He believes that the patient has developed a pulmonary embolism, a blood clot to the lung. The therapist proceeds with 100% oxygen administration. When the rapid response physician arrives a minute later, the therapist states quickly, “pulmonary embolism, oxygen already started, needs heparin and clot buster now.” The physician simply says “ordered” and by now a patient care technician has arrived at the room with a full crash cart of supplies. The medications are administered within 1 more minute. Within 5 minutes of the housekeeper recognizing the patient’s sudden change in condition, essential communication and assessment has been conducted among the team of professionals, and life-saving treatment is administered.
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A patient who most certainly would have died without immediate treatment gets to live. The same kind of quick and effective communication also keeps airplanes from crashing, with everyone knowing their role. Clear and direct communication is also important, with no egos in the way. TeamSTEPPS is powerful stuff. More and more industries are coming to realize its power. As an aspiring health care leader, you will be involved with many teams throughout your career. Some of them are together for years. They have time to carefully evaluate and make decisions for the organization. The hospital board of directors is one such team. Other teams form within a minute, make decisions within another minute, and save a patient’s life within just a few minutes. The principles of TeamSTEPPS apply to all teams in health care.
References Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2014, January). Pocket guide: TeamSTEPPS.
Beaty, D. (1969). Naked pilot: The human factor in aircraft accidents. Crowood Press.
Suggested Unit Resources In order to access the following resource, click the link below. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality created a system, which is truly improving teamwork in health care. That system is TeamSTEPPS. Here is a Pocket Guide covering the key aspects of this important program. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2014, January). Pocket Guide: TeamSTEPPS.
Learning Activities (Nongraded) Nongraded Learning Activities are provided to aid students in their course of study. You do not have to submit them. If you have questions, contact your instructor for further guidance and information. The Chapter 5 Click to Reveal Terms activity reinforces information on lesson content that you will find helpful. A PDF of the Chapter 5 Terms activity is also available. The Chapter 6 Matching activity reinforces information on lesson content that you will find helpful. A PDF of the Chapter 6 Matching activity is also available.
Course Learning Outcomes for Unit III
Required Unit Resources
TeamSTEPPS® for Health Care
The Structure of Teams
Solid and Accurate Communication
Mutual Support Among Team Members
Suggested Unit Resources
Learning Activities (Nongraded)