Describe the historical background of the development of Levine’s model for health

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Describe the historical background of the development of Levine’s model for health

Describe the historical background of the development of Levine’s model for health

levine’s conservation model in nursing practice powerpoint presentation

žConservation Model
Myra estrin Levine

 

žMyra E. Levine

žWhy nurses use theory to guide their practice:

oA nursing theory provides the theoretical foundation of the profession.

oTheory defines what nursing is, what it does, and the goals or outcomes of nursing care.

oNursing is the synthesis of many theories.

oOur group identified with Levine’s Conservation Model because it focuses on conserving an individual’s wholeness. It addresses an individual from birth to death and aims to maintain an equilibrium conducive to health.

o

 

žPurpose:

The purpose of this project is to describe the use of a conceptual nursing model, Levine’s Conservation Model.

žTheory Overview

Myra Estrin Levine proposed four principles of conservation. The process by which conservation is achieved is adaptation and the desired outcome is integrity or wholeness. Adaptation includes responses based on past experiences (historicity), specific to the need (specificity), and with a variety of levels of possible response (redundancy). The principles of conservation relate to the conservation of energy, structural integrity, personal integrity, and social integrity of the individual.

žLevine’s Nursing model:
Objectives

oDescribe the historical background of the development of Levine’s model for health

oDefine Levine’s three major concepts and four principles of conservation

oPresent the relationship between Levine’s model and concepts in nursing’s metaparadigm

oProvide an example of Levine’s model in a clinical practice

oEvaluation of the Conservation Model

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žHistorical background and motivation for development of conservation model

žEducational Background
and accomplishments

žPhilosophic Values and knowledge development levine’s conservation model in nursing practice powerpoint presentation

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žMany Teachers influenced the conservation model

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žThe Three Major Concepts of the Conservation Model

  • Wholeness (Holism)

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  • Adaptation
  • Conservation

žWholeness

oTo understand the whole person, one must first understand the parts of the whole.

o

oLevine used Erickson’s description of wholeness as an open system (Levine, 1969).

o

oLevine believed that humans respond in “ an integrated, singular fashion to environmental changes” (Levine 1966).

žAdaptation

“Adaptation is the process of change whereby the individual retains his integrity within the realities of his internal and external environment” (Levine, 1973).

oAll adaptations vary in degree, and not all are successful.

oConservation is the outcome.

oAdaptation has three characteristics

oHistoricity

oSpecificity

oRedundancy

žConservation

“Conservation describes the way complex systems are able to continue to function even when severely challenged (Levine, 1973).

oThe primary goal of conservation is maintaining wholeness and uniqueness.

oNursing actions reflecting this model are directed at helping the client conserve:

o* Energy  * Personal Integrity

o* Structural Integrity  * Social Integrity

žGlobal Concepts in the Nursing Profession

oHuman Being: Each person has freedom of choice, identity, and self-worth.  Each person expresses themselves as a summary of all contributing parts.

oHealth: Defined in social contexts; the ability to function within reasonable limits.  Health is more than the absence of disease, and changes with time. levine’s conservation model in nursing practice powerpoint presentation

oEnvironment:  Not just the place a person lives, but also the situation.  There is an internal and an external environment, and both contribute to accommodation.

žGlobal Concepts in the Nursing Profession

“The goal of nursing is to promote adaptation and maintain wholeness” (Levine 1971). 

oNursing is not a series of specific tasks but is a human interaction.

oIt is based on knowledge and scientific reasoning, but is an art that each person practices in a unique manner based on each client’s needs.

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Each one of the global concepts of nursing has the ability to add to wholeness or to detract from it.

žInterpretation & Inference
Implications & Consequences

žEvaluation of nursing model

oMyra Levine’s conservation model focuses on promoting adaptation and maintaining wholeness using the principles of conservation.

oAccording to Levine (1973) “human beings conserve their bodies’ incredible ability to adapt to environmental stimuli” (Schaefer & Pond, 1994, p.53). levine’s conservation model in nursing practice powerpoint presentation

žOrigins

Levine’s Conservation Model is clearly influenced by other disciplines.  It is not unique to nursing.  It has elements of the physical sciences as evidenced by the principle of energy conservation.  The social sciences are represented in the concept of the perseveration of personal integrity.  The influence of humanities is reflected by the concept of how a person’s social system is part of their environment and all forms of environment have an influence on the person.

žorigins

Levine’s Conservation model was developed as an organizational framework for teaching medical surgical nursing.  It was not intended to be a nursing theory (Schaefer, 2006, p.228).

žLevine’s theory and its uniqueness to nursing

oThe conservation principles are used by the nurse to identify interventions and to maintain wholeness for the patient (Schaefer & Pond, 1994, p.53).

oThis theory is influenced by a person’s wholeness and their ability to adapt and respond to different environmental challenges.

o

žFour Global concepts

This model adequately describes the four global concepts:

o     Human being

o     Environment

o     Health

o     Nursing

All of these concepts represent the factors that influence individuals and their ideas about their own health and how they view healthcare in general which can influence the individual’s treatment goals and outcome.

žapplications

oA theory deals with one or more specific concepts and is usually derived from a conceptual model (Kearney-Nunnery, 2005).

oLevine’s Conservation model is a general guide of systems and statements and uses broad concepts in a logical, organized form that can be used in different settings.  “Conservation principles as a framework are not limited to nursing care in the hospital but can be generalized and used in every environment, hospital, or community (Levine, 1990, 1991)” (Schaefer, 2006, p.233).

žApplications levine’s conservation model in nursing practice powerpoint presentation

This model has been used in varied areas of nursing.  “Conservation principles have been used as frameworks for numerous practice settings in cardiology, obstetrics, gerontology, acute care (neurology), pediatrics, long-term care, emergency care, primary care, neonatology, critical care areas, and in the homeless community” (Savage & Culbert, 1989; Schaefer & Pond, 1991).

žapplications

“Use of an appropriate conceptual model facilitates the design and testing of theory-based interventions and the development of science to support nursing practice”(Mock et al, 2007, p. 512).

žPutting the Conservation Model to Work

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You are a labor and delivery nurse working for a local hospital.  You are caring for a teenager who is about to deliver her first child.  In the room are her boyfriend, her mother, and her best friend.  She is quiet and is not making eye contact with care staff, and her family members are watching television.  You sit down next to the bed and ask the patient if there is anything she needs and she replies “no” but your gut instinct tells you there’s more to the picture.  Your assessment skills tell you there is a great potential here for problems.

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You ask the patient how she feels about becoming a mother.  She tells you she is scared.  In further conversation, she tells you she is not planning to go back to school because she is embarrassed and afraid of social rejection.  She did not take any birthing classes or childcare education.  She is afraid of pain during active labor, and has questions about pain control options.  She says her mother and her boyfriend have been supportive, but also voices concern about taking care of her mother, who has a physical disability.

žAssessing the situation

oIs this patient demonstrating wholeness?

o

oIs this patient demonstrating adaptation?

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oIs this patient demonstrating conservation?

žWholeness

Wow.  This patient has issues, right?  Let’s look at the pieces here.  Levine states we have to look at all of the little pieces to see the whole person.  In order to understand our patient, we have to assess her lifestyle, social integration, spirituality, self-image, family dynamic, environment, cultural identity, and anything else she feels may contribute to her identity.  We get a few hints of that in our initial conversation. levine’s conservation model in nursing practice powerpoint presentation

žAdaptation

How well is your patient adapting?  Before you say “poorly” look at what you can build on.  Adaptation is not a “pass or fail” but can vary in degree.  Consider environment, organismic response, and trophicognosis in your response.  This is a new situation for your patient. How is she relating this to past experiences?  What does she perceive as a challenge?  What does she not perceive as a challenge or a goal?

žConservation

Levine describes conservation as “… the way complex systems are able to continue to function even when severely challenged” (1990).  Is your patient conserving energy? Is she conserving structural (physical) integrity?  Is she conserving her personal integrity?  Is she preserving social integrity?  How could you, as a nurse, promote these principles?

žPutting the model to work

žPromoting wholeness:  Talk with your patient about what roles for her are important, discuss what parts of her identity have been fragmented.  What is she proud of?  What is she missing?  What are her goals?

žPromoting adaptation:  Although your patient has not been to prenatal education and has dropped out of school, she has spent time gathering baby supplies and has stopped hanging out with unsupportive friends.  Build on this.  Encourage her and tell her about other community resources available to her.  Help her explore all of her options and consider her preferences.

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žPromoting conservation:  Provide her with pain control options, encourage physical rest.  Encourage her to advocate for her needs and allow her to carry out her social roles during her hospital stay by involving friends and family there to support her, if that is what she desires.

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Using Levine’s Conservation Model to guide our nursing practice takes conscious effort, but has   the potential to help our patients reach a higher state of health, which is the ultimate goal of nursing practice.

Conservation Model

žReferences

Alligood, M.R.,& Tomey, A.M.(2006). Myra Estrin

Levine :The conservation model. Y. Alexopoulos, & K. Hebberd (Eds.), Nursing theorists (pp. 726 – 742).St. Louis, MO: Mosby

Chitty, K. (2007). Professional Nursing Concepts &Challenges. St. Louis, Missouri: Saunders. George, J.

Current Nursing. (n.d.). Nursing theories: Levine’s four conservation      principles. Retrieved from http://currentnursing.com on July 2009.

Dalida D. N207 Blogger (2009). Myra Levine’s Conservation Theory. University of the Philippines Open University

Retrieved from http://nursingtheories.blogspot.com

George, J. B. (2001). Nursing theories: Base for professional nursing. (5th ed). Pearson Education.

Levine, M. E. (1992). Nightingale redux. In B.S. Barnum (Ed.), Nightingale’s notes on nursing (pp. 39-43). Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott.

Schaefer, K.M. (2006). Nursing Theorists and Their Work. In Y.Alexopaoulos (Ed. “Et al”), Myra Estrin Levine: The Conservation Model (pp. 227-243). St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby Elsevier.

Schaefer, K.M. & Pond, J.B. (1994). Levine’s Conservation Model as a Guide to Nursing Practice. Nursing Science Quarterly, 7, 53-54. doi: 10.1177/089431849400700204 levine’s conservation model in nursing practice powerpoint presentation