Both classical and unique ethical issues surrounding the use of genetic information to
inform precision medicine in clinical practice. Describe examples of
pharmacogenomic medicine and critically discuss the ethical issues for the patient,
their family, medical practitioners, the health board and / or health insurance
companies paying for the treatment, regulatory bodies and the pharmaceutical and
The main body of the essay should be a maximum of 1500 words, not including
references. Reference lists should be formatted appropriately using the Harvard style.
Background reading is provided to help start your research. However, it should be noted
that you have been provided with older reading material to give you the background. It
is expected that you will use your own literature searches for original primary
reference sources that are up to date with respect to current state of knowledge.
-Use of a specific example. The use of specific examples of pharmacogenomics medicine is completely flexible. The focus of the essay is on the ethical issues facing patients, their families, medical practitioners, the health board and / or health insurance companies paying for the treatment, regulatory bodies and the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. The requirement to use examples is just to place these discussions on ethics in the “real world”. Therefore the way you use examples is entirely flexible. They can be theoretical, or real examples from your lectures. You can use different examples to highlight different issues, or you can use the same example throughout. You can present an introductory “case” focussing on a specific pharmacogenomics example, before embarking on your presentation of the ethical issues, or you discuss the ethical issues in general and then highlight an example as you progress. This is entirely up to you. But the key part of the task is to focus on and recognise the ethical issues for each of the groups above.
-Background resources. You were provided with a set of literature to get you started on your research. These resources should be used as you to choose to support your essay. You can utilise the information and cite the references in your essay. However, you should also include more up to date references. By this it is meant that the background references were older and that there are perhaps more recent and updated information on ethical issues. Perhaps some of the theoretical issues presented in the resources have recently been studied in patient populations, perhaps there is recognition of new issues, etc. It is important to demonstrate, by citing appropriate references, that you read more widely than the provided resources to produce your essay.
– write in academic way (use academic words)