The technological advancement and expansion of biomedical knowledge may assist pregnant women in delivery and may help them avoid multiple birth complications. The medical and obstetric assistance are especially important when a woman’s health condition is unsatisfactory, and there are fewer chances for the positive pregnancy outcomes. However, many women in the USA prefer natural childbirth which implies minimum obstetric and medical assistance.
The choice of a particular birth option can be influenced by the cultural and social backgrounds of a woman, the availability of support resources, and potential health risks. The choice of an appropriate childbirth option is important because it can help to prevent birth complications that may threaten the psychological and physical well-being of a pregnant woman and affect infant development in a negative way.Childbirth Options and Complications Report Essay
Hospital birth is a common option for labor and delivery. Traditional hospital birth is associated with medical support and professional supervision during the gestation period. Many hospitals in the USA provide prenatal care practices such as parenting and childbirth training which help women to reduce stress and to feel more secure. Although hospital birthing is commonly perceived in close relation to medical interference and regarded as “unnatural,” many US medical settings give women an opportunity to have more “natural” delivery without medication yet with the assistance of a midwife (Miller & Shriver, 2012).
However, in the emergency situations, technological and obstetric interventions are needed for the maintenance of maternal health and infant survival. Nowadays, about 26% of births in the USA were supported by the surgical interference, and the researchers consider that many of such deliveries were unrelated to the factors of maternal health and child’s survival (Crossley, 2007).
It is observed that the rates of caesarean deliveries have risen dramatically in a few decades, and it is considered that women may prefer medicated hospital childbirth because it is commonly associated with a high level of professional expertise and less painful experience (Miller & Shriver, 2012).
The natural home births became very popular. Many women prefer to reduce medical control and management in labor and delivery. Natural delivery often takes place at home among the family members, and because of the comfortable conditions and psychological support the woman may feel less stressed. Natural home childbirth is often idealized and regarded as the best option, but the lack of pregnancy monitoring may provoke adverse outcomes and birth complications. Therefore, at least a small amount of obstetric supervision is still important to ensure the positive pregnancy outcomes.Childbirth Options and Complications Report Essay
There are close interrelations between cultural contexts, social organization and influences, personal values and the selection of childbirth options. For example, it is observed that natural unassisted homebirth can be largely influenced by the “religion-centered lifestyle” (Miller & Shriver, 2012, p. 713). Natural delivery and mothering are also frequently preferred by the women who are attached to family and are primarily child-oriented.Childbirth Options and Complications Report Essay
At the same time, the women who prefer hospital childbirth associate the availability of midwives and the presence of physicians during delivery with safety (Miller & Shriver, 2012). It this way, cultural contexts, as well as the personal values and beliefs, play a decisive role in childbirth decision making. However, it is possible to say that the role of personal values and preferences in childbirth decision making is significant in case many options are available for a woman, and she does not have any strict financial or social constraints in following the personal interests.
The choice of the childbirth option can be motivated by the socioeconomic position of a pregnant woman. The costs of deliveries in the US hospitals may exceed $6000 (Miller & Shriver, 2012). The preparation training practices, prenatal care and monitoring, courses and other pregnancy management activities may become unavailable for many women from poor families who do not have medical insurance.
In some cases the assisted homebirth may be more expensive than a hospital delivery, and many women who cannot afford to have a homebirth but regard it as an ideal sense of safety are forced to give birth in less comfortable conditions due to the financial situation.Childbirth Options and Complications Report Essay
Although a woman may have no health problems during the pregnancy, the complications during delivery still may arise. For example, the complications may be related to the abnormal position of the fetus in the uterus that may lead to the prolonging of labor, increase of pain and traumatic experience during delivery. The fetal malposition and the consequent prolonged labor often require the surgical intervention, and the severe cases can result in the mother’s morbidity (Senecal, Xiong, & Fraser, 2005). It also increases the risks of the infant morbidity that may include the admission to the neonatal intensive care unit, and multiple traumas.
There is the risk of umbilical cord prolapse and umbilical cord compression as well. Umbilical cord provides the flow of blood to the fetus and its disposition during delivery provokes the emergency situations. Umbilical cord compression decreases the blood flow and may provoke the fetal heart rate drops (Ashington, 2009). The severe consequences of umbilical cord compression are uncommon and they usually require the caesarean section.Childbirth Options and Complications Report Essay
Umbilical cord prolapse is also a rare phenomenon, but the respond to this critical situation should be urgent. It occurs when the umbilical cord precedes the baby in the birth canal during the delivery (Maher & Heavey, 2015). When the fetal cord can be felt or seen on the perineum after the rupture of membranes it is defined as the overt prolapse, or when it is not seen but it moves alongside the fetus’ body, it is defined as the occult prolapse (Gabbay-Benziv et al., 2014). Cord prolapse may be spontaneous, or it can be developed as a consequence of the artificial and premature rupture of membranes (Maher & Heavey, 2015).
The frequency of the complication occurrence is low but it may lead to the infant’s death. Cord prolapse decreases the blood flow and leads to the deceleration of the fetal heart rate. The perinatal mortality associated with the cord abnormality is asphyxia, prematurity and low body weight (Gabbay-Benziv et al., 2014). The prolonged umbilical cord prolapse increases the chances of negative outcomes in both preterm and term deliveries. Thus, the quick medical respond to the emergency situation is a necessity.Childbirth Options and Complications Report Essay
The prolonged umbilical cord prolapse can result in the development of physical abnormalities in the infant. It is reported that about 15% of all neonates influenced by the prolapsed cord during delivery were referred to the intensive care units due to respiratory problems, such as transient tachypnea or respiratory distress syndrome, or hypoxic brain injury (Gabbay-Benziv et al., 2014). The fetal hypoxic brain injury caused by the reduction of blood flow influences the development of brain structure in a negative way and, as a result, the infant’s cognitive and motor development can be delayed (Macnab, 2012).