Among a variety of health problems that challenge humans, cardiovascular disease has always been a leading cause of death. People of different ages and both genders are frequently diagnosed with myocardial infarction, stroke, or ischemic heart disease. In addition to individual characteristics, there are many risk factors, including diabetes, hypertension, obesity, or cholesterol. Due to the inability to manage comorbidities or the consequences of family history, people may follow additional recommendations like avoidance of a sedentary lifestyle. The effects of diet and exercise on cardiovascular disease vary, depending on the frequency of interventions and the quality of food. Healthy dietary habits provoke a decrease in the cholesterol level and the control of blood pressure. Physical exercises support the work of muscles and the reduction of obesity-related problems. Both interventions are discussed in recent studies and by professional organizations. The evaluation of cardiovascular diseases and risk factors, along with nutritional and physical intervention, will be developed in this project. Being effective as separate practices for human health, diet and physical activities have to be combined to help people achieve positive health outcomes, stabilize the work of the heart, and predict mortality.
Many factors, such as the age of a person, the chosen lifestyle, and family history, contribute to the risk of cardiovascular diseases. At the same time, some health conditions like high blood pressure and diabetes increase the prevalence of this group of diseases among the population. People who neglect the importance of physical exercise and support unhealthy habits (eating, smoking, or alcohol abuse) address their therapists for medical help and health checkups regularly (The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019). According to the ADA’s Medical Knowledge Team (2018), cardiovascular disease is usually a broad term that is used to describe a variety of conditions that influence the work of the heart, including heart attack and stroke. In this research paper, the effects of diet and exercises on the progress of cardiovascular disease will be analyzed. To better understand the connection between dietary habits, physical exercises, and cardiovascular problems, the following aspects have to be discussed:
Cardiovascular diseases as a leading cause of death in the United States
Risk factors that provoke cardiovascular disease
Importance of dietary interventions for cardiac patients
The role of exercise training on cardiovascular disease management
Combined dietary and exercise interventions in cardiovascular events
Cardiovascular Diseases as a Leading Cause of Death in the United States
Angina, heart failure, stroke, infarction, and carditis are diseases with one similar characteristic that is the existence of problems or dysfunction of the heart or blood vessels. These conditions are usually introduced as a part of the same group of illnesses, known as cardiovascular disease (Cannie et al., 2019). It is one of the major causes of mortality worldwide, leading to about 18 million deaths in 2015 (Ruan et al., 2018). Regarding the current statistics and examinations, it is expected to observe the rise in numbers by 2020, with about 22 million people dying from cardiovascular disease annually (Ruan et al., 2018). The analysis of this condition focuses on the identification of associated factors such as age (older adults with damaged arteries and weakened muscles) or gender (women after menopause and men at any age).
There are many types of cardiovascular diseases that are caused by an unbalanced lifestyle and bad habits. For example, myocardial infarction or a heart attack is a condition when blood and oxygen cannot reach the heart muscle because of a blocked coronary artery (Saleh & Ambrose, 2018). Patients usually report on such symptoms as sharp chest pain, shortness of breath, nausea, and dizziness. Blood tests, a physical examination, and an electrocardiogram are the main diagnostic methods to check the condition and identify the level of the blockage and protein rating (Cannie et al., 2019). Patients get access to several pharmacological and operative treatment plans to remove the blocked vessel and promote oxygen transportation.
An ischemic stroke or simply stroke is another form of cardiovascular disease, the distinctive feature of which is that it occurs not in the heart but in the brain, affecting the work of blood vessels. The prevalence of stroke is discussed in terms of age and gender (more common in men aged between 70-79 years) (Ruan et al., 2018). The symptoms of this condition are usually sudden and short, so it is necessary for people in risk groups to be aware of the major signs and address for help as soon as possible. There is a FAST campaign for healthcare employees and populations to pay attention to the condition of face (dropping), arm (weakness), speech (difficult speaking), and time (call an ambulance soon) (Hickey et al., 2018). Other symptoms to consider include headache, soreness, vision problems, and confusion. In addition to the already mentioned tests, computer tomography scans are helpful to observe the brain and define damaged areas.
Risk Factors That Provoke Cardiovascular Disease
In addition to age and gender factors, family history, and unhealthy habits, cardiovascular disease may be provoked by such health conditions as high blood pressure, diabetes, and abnormal blood cholesterol levels. They are known as the major risk factors that provoke cardiovascular diseases. When the pressure of the blood is elevated and poorly controlled, it influences the work of the heart and the brain. As a silent killer, blood pressure must be reduced (if it is more than 115/75 mmHg) by means of antihypertensive drugs and therapies (The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019; Stewart et al., 2017). In addition, regular measurements and lifestyle changes are recommended to manage risks and predict cardiovascular disease.
Diabetes is a common chronic condition among people of different ages around the globe. It is characterized by high glucose levels in the blood, which results in the artery walls being damaged and fatty deposits being gathered in the arteries to provoke cardiovascular disease (The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019). Diabetic patients use insulin to control glucose and discover new sources of energy. The reduction of sugar in the blood is connected with the possibility of reducing the number of cardiovascular-related deaths (Stewart et al., 2017). However, if older adults are diagnosed with diabetes, they are at risk of having heart complications often.