It is unlikely that the medicine and healthcare will be at a decent level in a country where the war and destruction have been carried out for many years. At present, the level of the medical care in Afghanistan is gradually increasing; however, not in all the parts of the country and not due to the special governmental policy but due to the help of organizations such as the Red Cross, Red Crescent, and others. From this perspective, it was decided to examine the scope of health and health provision in the country to follow the tendency of its development.Afghanistan’s Public Health Nursing Essay
The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan is a country in the southwestern part of Central Asia. The landlocked state (has no outlet to the sea) is situated between 29 ° 30 ‘and 38 ° 20’ N and 60 ° 30 ‘and 74 ° 45’ E. The state borders with Pakistan in the south and east, Iran in the west, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan in the north, and with China and India in the far northeast (Johnson, 2011). The closest distance from its borders to the Indian Ocean is approximately 500 km.
The length of the territory from north to south equals 1,015 km and from east to west, 1240 km. Afghanistan occupies the northeastern part of the Iranian plateau including the high ridges and intermountain valleys. In the upper tier of the mountains, especially in the northeast, there are various types of glaciations. The climate of Afghanistan is dry continental (with significant temperature amplitudes). Afghanistan’s Public Health Nursing Essay
According to the statistics of 2015, the country gives the home to more than 30 million people. The population density is 43 people per one square kilometer, but the population is spread unevenly (Johnson, 2011). Most of the population is concentrated in the valleys of large rivers, where cultivation is carried out and nearby the major cities. The most populated regions are the Kandahar and Kabul oases as well as areas of Herat, Mazar-e-Sharif, Kunduz, Baghlan and Jalalabad, where the population density exceeds 100 persons per square kilometer.
The growth of the population is characterized by a high birth rate and mortality. The growth has risen up to 4,77%. The birth rate per 1000 people is up to 47,02% while the mortality rate is 20,75 per 1000 people. The infant mortality rate is among the highest in the world (163,1 per 1000 births). The average life expectancy equals 42,9 years. There are more males in Afghanistan than females, and the prevalence of the male population over the female is the most noticeable in the age group of 15 to 64 years (Trimble, 2011). The average age of the Afghans is 17,56 years. Afghanistan’s Public Health Nursing Essay
In accordance with the Constitution, the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan is a presidential form of government. The supreme executive power is vested in the President, who is elected by universal, direct, and secret election for a period of 5 years. The president is the supreme commander of the armed forces of the country, and he or she appoints ministers and other senior government officials with the approval of the Parliament (Johnson, 2011).
The government carries out its activities under the chairmanship of the President, who, with the approval of the national parliament appoints the members of the cabinet (Johnson, 2011). The government proposes laws, issue regulations, and instructions. There is also a traditional institution of the representative government, which is the Loya Jirga composed of the members of both Houses of Parliament and the chairpersons of provincial and district councils.Afghanistan’s Public Health Nursing Essay
Due to the extended war, the Afghanistan’s economy has come to a complete standstill. Many businesses were destroyed as well as the transport system, and the trade links between the different parts of the country and other states. The economic cooperation with the outside world has almost completely stopped except for a joint attempt by the United States to organize the restoration of the telecommunications systems.
According to some estimates, over 53% of the Afghanistan’s GDP is represented by the agriculture, 28,5% to 18,5% by industry and the service sector respectively (Afghanistan, 2016). Transportation and warehousing, as well as public services, take a significant place in the composition of the industry. Nevertheless, the unemployment rate in the country is between 35% – 40% and about 36% of citizens live below the poverty line; the inflation rate is approximately 13,8%. Afghanistan’s Public Health Nursing Essay